Mandarin Chinese

Code ISO 639-3: cmn

Classification: Sino-Tibetan > Sinitic > Classical-Middle-Modern Sinitic > Middle-Modern Sinitic > Northern Chinese > Mandarinic > Mandarin Chinese

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

Pays ou régions dans lesquelles l'entrepôt dispose d'enregistrements
Région Code Nombre
China CN 217
France FR 1
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: Mandarin Chinese

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Complex Sentences:'Want' Complement Subjects = "Subject is left implicit" (réf. Gui 2000 )
  • Complex Sentences:'Want' Complement Subjects = "Subject is left implicit" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Complex Sentences:'When' Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Complex Sentences:Purpose Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Complex Sentences:Reason Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Obliques = "Gap" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Subjects = "Gap" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Complex Sentences:Utterance Complement Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Lexicon:Finger and Hand = "Different" (réf. Huang 1954 )
  • Lexicon:Green and Blue = "Green vs. blue"
  • Lexicon:Hand and Arm = "Different" (réf. Huang 1954 )
  • Lexicon:M in First Person Singular = "No m in first person singular" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Lexicon:M in Second Person Singular = "No m in second person singular" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Lexicon:M-T Pronouns = "No M-T pronouns" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Lexicon:N-M Pronouns = "No N-M pronouns" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Lexicon:Number of Basic Colour Categories = "8-8.5"
  • Lexicon:Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories = "6"
  • Lexicon:Numeral Bases = "Decimal"
  • Lexicon:Red and Yellow = "Red vs. yellow"
  • Lexicon:Tea = "Words derived from Sinitic cha" (réf. Malherbe and Rosenberg 1996 )
  • Morphology:Case Syncretism = "No case marking"
  • Morphology:Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Monoexponential case" (réf. Bisang 1991, Li and Thompson 1981, Bisang 1992 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Tense-Aspect-Mood Inflection = "monoexponential TAM" (réf. Bisang 1992, Li and Thompson 1981, Bisang 1991 )
  • Morphology:Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Isolating/concatenative" (réf. Bisang 1991, Li and Thompson 1981, Bisang 1992 )
  • Morphology:Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb = "0-1 category per word" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases = "Dependent marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in the Clause = "Dependent marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology = "Dependent-marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Strongly suffixing" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Morphology:Reduplication = "Productive full and partial reduplication" (réf. Zhu 2001 )
  • Morphology:Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking = "No subject person/number marking"
  • Morphology:Zero Marking of A and P Arguments = "Non-zero marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Asymmetrical Case-Marking = "No case-marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural suffix" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Comitatives and Instrumentals = "Differentiation" (réf. Stolz 1996 )
  • Nominal Categories:Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers = "Formally similar, with interrogative"
  • Nominal Categories:Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives = "Two-way contrast" (réf. Chao 1968 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "No distributive numerals"
  • Nominal Categories:Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns = "3rd person singular only" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns = "Inclusive/exclusive" (réf. Chao 1968 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection = "No person marking" (réf. Chao 1968 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Pronouns = "Mixed" (réf. Chappell 1994 )
  • Nominal Categories:Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns = "Identical" (réf. Hole 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Cases = "No morphological case-marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Genders = "None" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Numeral Classifiers = "Obligatory"
  • Nominal Categories:Occurrence of Nominal Plurality = "Only human nouns, optional" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "One-th, two-th, three-th" (réf. Ming Chao Gui 2000 )
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "One-th, two-th, three-th" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Person Marking on Adpositions = "No person marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns = "Person stem + nominal plural affix" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "Binary politeness distinction" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "No case affixes or adpositional clitics" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes = "No possessive affixes" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives = "Identical" (réf. Chao 1968 )
  • Nominal Categories:Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems = "No gender" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Systems of Gender Assignment = "No gender" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:The Associative Plural = "Unique periphrastic associative plural" (réf. Chao 1968 )
  • Nominal Categories:Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives = "Related for non-human reference" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Action Nominal Constructions = "No action nominals"
  • Nominal Syntax:Adjectives without Nouns = "Marked by following word"
  • Nominal Syntax:Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses = "Weakly differentiated"
  • Nominal Syntax:Nominal and Verbal Conjunction = "Differentiation" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981, Chappell 1994 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Noun Phrase Conjunction = "'And' identical to 'with'" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Number of Possessive Nouns = "None reported" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Obligatory Possessive Inflection = "Absent" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Possessive Classification = "No possessive classification" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Phonology:Absence of Common Consonants = "All present" (réf. Dow 1972, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960, Chao 1968 )
  • Phonology:Consonant Inventories = "Moderately large" (réf. Dow 1972, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960, Chao 1968 )
  • Phonology:Consonant-Vowel Ratio = "Average" (réf. Dow 1972, Chao 1968, Hanyu 1960, Cheng 1973a )
  • Phonology:Fixed Stress Locations = "No fixed stress" (réf. Henne et al. 1977 )
  • Phonology:Front Rounded Vowels = "High only" (réf. Chao 1968, Dow 1972, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960 )
  • Phonology:Glottalized Consonants = "No glottalized consonants" (réf. Chao 1968, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960, Dow 1972 )
  • Phonology:Lateral Consonants = "/l/, no obstruent laterals" (réf. Chao 1968, Cheng 1973a, Dow 1972, Hanyu 1960 )
  • Phonology:Presence of Uncommon Consonants = "None" (réf. Dow 1972, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960, Chao 1968 )
  • Phonology:Syllable Structure = "Moderately complex" (réf. Dow 1972, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960, Chao 1968 )
  • Phonology:The Velar Nasal = "No initial velar nasal" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Phonology:Tone = "Complex tone system" (réf. Dow 1972, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960, Chao 1968 )
  • Phonology:Uvular Consonants = "Uvular continuants only" (réf. Chao 1968, Cheng 1973a, Dow 1972, Hanyu 1960 )
  • Phonology:Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems = "Other" (réf. Cheng 1973a, Dow 1972, Chao 1968, Hanyu 1960 )
  • Phonology:Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives = "In fricatives alone" (réf. Chao 1968, Dow 1972, Hanyu 1960, Cheng 1973a )
  • Phonology:Vowel Nasalization = "Contrast absent" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Quality Inventories = "Average (5-6)" (réf. Dow 1972, Cheng 1973a, Hanyu 1960, Chao 1968 )
  • Phonology:Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems = "Lexical stress" (réf. Henne et al. 1977 )
  • Phonology:Weight-Sensitive Stress = "Not predictable" (réf. Henne et al. 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases = "Neutral" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns = "Neutral" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Verbal Person Marking = "Neutral" (réf. Norman 1988 )
  • Simple Clauses:Antipassive Constructions = "No antipassive" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Applicative Constructions = "No applicative construction" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Comparative Constructions = "Exceed" (réf. Ming Chao Gui 2000 )
  • Simple Clauses:Comparative Constructions = "Exceed" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' = "Double-object construction" (réf. Gui 2000 )
  • Simple Clauses:Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' = "Mixed" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Expression of Pronominal Subjects = "Optional pronouns in subject position" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "Predicate negation also present" (réf. Gui 2000 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "Predicate negation also present" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Morphemes = "Negative particle" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nominal and Locational Predication = "Different" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions = "Compound but no morphological" (réf. Li and Thompson 1976 )
  • Simple Clauses:Order of Person Markers on the Verb = "A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb" (réf. Norman 1988 )
  • Simple Clauses:Other Roles of Applied Objects = "No applicative construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Passive Constructions = "Present" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Question particle" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Adjectives = "Verbal encoding" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Possession = "Topic" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Productivity of the Antipassive Construction = "no antipassive" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Reciprocal Constructions = "Distinct from reflexive" (réf. Hoa et al. 2007 )
  • Simple Clauses:Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation = "A/Fin" (réf. Wiedenhof 1994, Lin 2001 )
  • Simple Clauses:Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation = "Both" (réf. Wiedenhof 1994, Lin 2001 )
  • Simple Clauses:Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking = "No person marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Verbal Person Marking = "No person marking" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals = "Impossible" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Coding of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Epistemic Possibility = "Verbal constructions" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Imperative-Hortative Systems = "Neither type of system" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking = "Overlap for both possibility and necessity" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Perfective/Imperfective Aspect = "Grammatical marking" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect suffixes" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Situational Possibility = "Verbal constructions" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect = "None" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion in Imperatives and Hortatives = "None (= no suppletive imperatives reported in the reference material)"
  • Verbal Categories:The Future Tense = "No inflectional future" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Morphological Imperative = "No second-person imperatives" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Optative = "Inflectional optative absent" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Past Tense = "No past tense" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Perfect = "No perfect" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Prohibitive = "Normal imperative + special negative" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Verbal Categories:Verbal Number and Suppletion = "None" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:NegSVO Order = "No NegSVO"
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Adjective-Noun" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "No dominant order" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Degree Word and Adjective = "Degree word-Adjective" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Demonstrative-Noun" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Genitive-Noun" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "NegV" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Numeral-Noun" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "VO" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb = "XVO" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Relative clause-Noun" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "SV" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "SVO" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Not initial interrogative phrase" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "SNegVO"
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "Final" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Position of negative words relative to beginning and end of clause and with respect to adjacency to verb = "Immed preverbal"
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "None" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Prenominal relative clauses = "Relative clause-Noun (RelN) dominant" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "NegV" (réf. Li and Thompson 1981 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "VO and AdjN"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Other"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "VO and RelN"
  • Word Order:SNegVO Order = "Word&NoDoubleNeg"
  • Word Order:SVNegO Order = "No SVNegO"
  • Word Order:SVONeg Order = "No SVONeg"
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SVO Languages = "SNegVO"

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_kug

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • Mandarin Chinese (PH) (49 segments)
    a , ai , au , ei , f , i , ia , iau , ie , iou , iu , j , k , kʰ , l , m , n , ou , p , pʰ , s , t , ts , tsʰ , tɕ , tɕʰ , tʰ , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃ̺ʰ , u , ua , uai , uei , uo , uə , w , x , y , ye , ŋ , ɕ , ə , ɤ , ɹ , ʃ̺
  • Mandarin Chinese (SPA) (43 segments)
    a , a˞ , a̟˞ , cç , cçʰ , f , i , j , k , kʰ , l , m , n , p , pʰ , s , t , ts , tsʰ , tʰ , u , u˞ , w , w˞ , y , ç , ŋ , ɑ̃˞ , ə˞ , ə̃˞ , ɤ , ɤ˞ , ɥ , ɰ , ʂ , ʈʂ , ʈʂʰ , ʐ , χ
  • Mandarin Chinese (UPSID) (32 segments)
    a , a˞ , cç , cçʰ , f , i , j , k , kʰ , l̪ , m , n , p , pʰ , s̪ , t̪ , t̪s̪ , t̪s̪ʰ , t̪ʰ , u , w , y , ç , ŋ , ə˞ , ɤ̟ , ɥ , ʂ , ʈʂ , ʈʂʰ , ʐ , χ

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

  • 1992. Parametric variation in pitch realization of 'neutral tone' syllables in Mandarin. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 14-17, 1992. Special Session on the Typology of Tone Languages. (cf. référence complète)
  • 1995. Chinese Causal Sequencing and Yinwei in Conversation and Press Reportage. In Proceedings of the 21st annual meeting of the Berkeley Lingistics Society, February 17-20,1995. Special session on discourse in southeast Asian languages. (cf. référence complète)
  • 1995. Local and Global Coreferences: Third- Person Zero Pronoun in Chinese Narratives. In Proceedings of the 21st annual meeting of the Berkeley Lingistics Society, February 17-20,1995. Special session on discourse in southeast Asian languages. (cf. référence complète)
  • 1995. On the Degree of Givenness: An Analysis of Noun Phrases in Some Chinese Constructions. In Proceedings of the 21st annual meeting of the Berkeley Lingistics Society, February 17-20,1995. Special session on discourse in southeast Asian languages. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2007. Dai Lü First year kindergarten first semester art teacher's manual. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2007. Dai Lü First year kindergarten first semester music teacher's manual. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2007. Dai Lü First year kindergarten first semester physical education teacher's manual. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2007. Dai Lü first year kindergarten first semester math teacher's manual. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2007. Dai Lü first year kindergarten primer track first semester teacher's manual. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abbott, Gary Steven. 1992. The function of sentence topics in oral and written Mandarin narrative. Ann Arbor: UMI. (MA thesis, University of East Lansing; 168pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Akurang-Parry, Kwabena. 2001. 'We cast about for a remedy': the opposition ofthe Gold Coast press to the Chinese mine labor experiment in the Gold Coast, c. 1874-1914. International journal of African historical studies 34. 265-284. (cf. référence complète)
  • Alverson, Hoyt S. 1994. Semantics and experience: universal metaphors of time in English, Mandarin, Hindi and Sesotho. (Parallax: re-visions of culture and societ, rallax: re-visions of culture and society.) Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. xiv+151pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Anqi, Hu. 2010. Pendidikan Bahasa Mandarin Di Yogyakarta :: Kajian Tentang: Pembelajaran Bahasa Mandarin Pada Peserta Didik Keturunan Tionghoa Dan: Non-Tionghoa Di Ugm Dan Uajy. (MA thesis, [Yogyakarta]: Universitas Gadjah Mada; xviii+149pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Ansaldo, Umberto and Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2009. Complexity and the age of languages. In Aboh, Enoch O. and Smith, Norval (eds.), Complex Processes in New Languages, 345-363. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. (cf. référence complète)
  • Arcodia, Giorgio Francesco. 1966. Headedness and lexical categories. The case of Sino-Vietnamese compounds. X. (unpublished). (cf. référence complète)
  • Aryanti, Uti and Muslim, M. Umar. n.d. Pasif dalam Bahasa Indonesia dan Bahasa Mandarin. In KOLITA 9: Konferensi Linguistik Tahunan Atma Jaya 9: Tingkat Internasional, 35. (cf. référence complète)
  • Aryanti, Uti. n.d. Frase nominal dalam Bahasa Mandarin: sebuah tinjauan bahan ajar Bahasa Mandarin tingkat dasar. In Kolita 8: Konferensi Linguistik Tahunan Atma Jaya 8: Tingkat Internasional, Jakarta, 24 April 2010, 163. (cf. référence complète)
  • Auber, Jacques. 1958. Français, Malgache, Bantus, Arabes, Turcs, Chinois, Canaques ... Parlons-nous une même langue? Essai de sémantique comparée. Tananarive. (cf. référence complète)
  • Aumann, Greg and Pan Chengqian. 2004. Report on the Iu Mien-Chinese-English dictionary project. Asian Lexicography Conference, Chiang Mai 24-26 May 2004. 11pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Berg, Marinus van den and Wu, Guo. 2006. Chinese discourse particle Le: discorse construction and pragmatic marking in Chinese. (Routledge studies in Asian linguistics; 8, Routledge studies in Asian linguistics.) Routledge: London. ix+284pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bergman, Peter M. 1980. The Basic English-Chinese, Chinese-English Dictionary. New York: A Signet Book, New American Library. Quo, James C. 1955. Concise English-Chinese Dictionary Romanized. Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Co. (cf. référence complète)
  • Billard, R. 1965. Les cycles chronographiques chinois dans les inscriptions thaies [The Chinese chronographic cycles in the Thai inscriptions]. Bulletin de l'Ecôle Française d'Extrême-Orient 51. 403-31. (cf. référence complète)
  • Biq, Y. 1995. Causal relation and information sequencing in Mandarin. Berkeley Linguistic Society 21 S. 47-60. (cf. référence complète)
  • Biq, Yung-O. 1988. From Objectivity to Subjectivity. Studies in Language 12. 99-122. Amsterdam/Philadephia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. (cf. référence complète)
  • Biq, Yung-O. 1995. Chinese Causal Sequencing and Yinwei in Conversation and Press Reportage. Berkeley Linguistic Society 21S. 47-62. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bisang, Walter. 1992. Das Verb im Chinesischen, Hmong, Vietnamesischen, Thai und Khmer: Vergleichende Grammatik im Rahmen der Verbserialisierung, der Grammatikalisierung und der Attraktorpositionen. Tübingen: Narr. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bischoff, F. A. 1965. Une incantation lamaique anti-chinoise [An anti-Chinese Lamaic chant]. Central Asiatic Journal 10. 128-35. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bishop, Nancy M. 1990. A grammatical sketch of Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Language and Linguistics 8. 30-58. (cf. référence complète)
  • Boltz, William G. 1994. The origin and early development of the Chinese writing system. (American Oriental Series, 78.) New Haven, CT: American Oriental Society. ix+205pp. (contents: Ch. 1. Writing in General. Definition of Writing. Forerunners of Writing – Pt. 1. The Shang Formation. Ch. 2. Writing in Chinese. Pictographic Origins. Logographs and Zodiographs. Graphic Multivalence. Determinatives. Ch. 3. The Multivalence of Graphs. Egyptian. Sumerian. Chinese – Pt. 2. The Chin-Han Re). (cf. référence complète)
  • Boroditsky, L. n.d. Does Language Shape Thought?: Mandarin and English Speakers' Conceptions of Time* 1. Cognitive psychology 43. 1–22. Elsevier. (cf. référence complète)
  • Boroditsky, Lera. 2001. Does language shape thought?. Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology 43. (cf. référence complète)
  • Branner, David Prager (ed.) 2006. The Chinese Rime Tables. Linguistic philosophy and historical-comparative phonology. (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 271.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 368pp. (Includes bibliographical references and index). (cf. référence complète)
  • Brauner, Siegmund. 1986. Zum Verhältnis von Kultur- und Sprachgeschichte: chinesische Lehnwörter im Swahili. Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung 39. 595-601. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chang, Chia Hao. 2006. Gapless relative clause constructions in Mandarin Chinese. (MA thesis, University of Min-Hsiung; vii+116pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Chang, Jung-hsing. 2001. The syntax of event structure in Chinese. Ann Arbor: UMI. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manoa; ix+284pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Chao Ju-kua. 1250. Chu fah chih = Gazetteer of foreigners. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chao, Yuen Ren. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. xxxi+847pp. (Bibliography: p. 820-826). (cf. référence complète)
  • Chaofen Sun. 1988. The discourse function of numeral classifiers in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 16. 298–322. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chappell, Hilary (ed.) 2001. Sinitic grammar: synchronic and diachronic perspectives. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. xxvii+397pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chappell, Hilary. 1986. The Passive of Bodily Effect in Chinese. Studies in Language 10. 271-296. Amsterdam/Philadephia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chappell, Hilary. 1994. Mandarin Semantic Primitives. In Goddard, Cliff and Wierzbicka, Anna (eds.), Semantic and Lexical Universals. Theory and empirical findings. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chappell, Hilary. 2001. Synchrony and diachrony of Sinitic languages: A brief history of Chinese dialects. In Chappell, Hilary (ed.), Sinitic Grammar: Synchronic and Diachronie Perspectives, 3-28. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chappell, Hilary. 2006. From Eurocentrism to Sinocentrism: The case of disposal constructions in Sinitic languages. In Ameka, Felix K. and Dench, Alan and Evans, Nicholas (eds.), Catching Language. The Standing Challenge of Grammar Writing, 441-486. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chappell, Hilary. 2008. Variation in the grammaticalization of complementizers from verba dicendi in Sinitic languages. Linguistic Typology 12. 45-98. Walter de Gruyter GmbH \& Co. KG. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chen, Yun-ru. 2005. Relativization and the noun phrase accessibility hierarchy: a study of adult second language acquisition of Mandarin restrictive relative clauses. (MA thesis, University of Taichung; vii+104pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Chen-ching Li, David. 1985. Problems and trends of standardization of Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan. Anthropological Linguistics 27. 122-140. (cf. référence complète)
  • Cheng, Chin-Chuan. 1973. A Synchronic Phonology of Mandarin Chinese. (MLA, 4.) Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chi-Ming, Louis Liu. 2006. Degree modification of adjectives in Mandarin Chinese. (MA thesis, University of Hsinchu; 86pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Chittick, H. Neville and Rotberg, Robert I. 1975. East Africa and the Orient: cultural syntheses in pre-colonial times. New York & London: Africana Publ. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chiung, Wi-vun Taiffalo. 2000. Review of: Modern Chinese: history and sociolinguistics, by Ping Chen. Notes on Literacy 26: 103-6. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chou Ch'u-fei. 1163. Ling-wai tai-ta = Information from beyond the mountains. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chu, Chauncey Cheng-hsi. 1998. A discourse grammar of Mandarin Chinese. (Berkeley models of grammars, 6.) New York: Lang. xviii+484pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chu-Ren Huang and Dingxu Shi. 2016. A Reference Grammar of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chung, Karen Steffen. 2006. Mandarin compound verbs. (Taiwan Journal of Linguistics : Book Series in Chinese Linguistics.) Crane Publ. xxxvi+252pp. (revision of author's dissertation of 2004 title also in Chinese). (cf. référence complète)
  • Chánh, Tran Van. 2002. Gu jin Han yu ci ci dian. Ho Chi Minh: Nhà xuât ban Tre. 752pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Coblin, South W. 1983. A Handbook of Eastern Han Sound Glosses. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. 332pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Coblin, South W. 2007. A Handbook of 'Phags-pa Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 327pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Coblin, South W. 2007. Modern Chinese phonology: from Guanhuà to Mandarin. (Collection des Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, 11.) Paris: EHESS. 97pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Cordier, Henri. 1912-32. [lat] Bibliotheca indosinica: [fra] Dictionnaire bibliographique des ouvrages relatifs à la péninsule indo-chinoise. ([fra] <Publications de l'Ecôle Française d'Extrême-Orient>, 15-18.) Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, Ernest Leroux. 5 vols.pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Cumming, Susanna. 1984. The Sentence in Chinese. Studies in Language 8. 365-395. Amsterdam/Philadephia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dai, Jin-Huei Enya. 2005. Conceptualization and cognitive relativism on result in Mandarin Chinese the case study of Mandarin Chinese Ba construction using a cognitive and centering approach. Baton Rouge: Lousiana State Univ. xv+323pp. (Baton Rouge, Univ., Diss., 2005.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Darnell, Michael et alii (ed.) 1998. Structure-preservation and Transitivity: The case of Chinese ba sentences. In Darnell, Michael et alii (ed.), Functionalism and formalism in linguistics. Volume II: Case studies. (cf. référence complète)
  • David Bradley and Maya Bradley and Li Yongxiang. 2006. Language Endangerment in China: the Yi of Kunming. Manuscript. (cf. référence complète)
  • Davison, Deborah S. 1992. Parametric variation in pitch realization of 'neutral tone' syllables in Mandarin. Berkeley Linguistic Society 18S. 67-79. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dede, Keith Randall Sean. 1999. Language Contact, Variation and Change: The Locative in Xining, Qinghai. (Doctoral dissertation, Seattle: University of Washington; 264pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Dimmendaal, Gerrit Jan. 1986. Syllabische consonanten in het Lendu en het Standaard Chinees: wee gevallen van compensatoire verlenging. Glot international 8. 177-194. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ding, Picus Sizhi. 2007. Studies on Bâ resultative construction: a comprehensive approach to mandarin bâ sentences. (Lincom studies in Asian linguistics, 62.) München: Lincom. 108pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dingxu Shi. 2004. Peking Mandarin. (Languages of the World/Materials, 377.) München: Lincom. 129pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dion, Raymond. 1982. La politique extérieure chinoise et le cas angolais. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dow, Francis D. M. 1972. An Outline of Mandarin Phonetics. Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University. (cf. référence complète)
  • Downing and Noonan (eds.) 1995. Pragmatic relations and word order in Chinese. In Downing and Noonan (eds.), Word Order in Discourse. (cf. référence complète)
  • Duanmu, San. 1966. The phonology of Standard Chinese. X. (unpublished). (cf. référence complète)
  • Duanmu, San. 2000. The phonology of standard Chinese. (The Phonology of the World's Languages.) Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. xv+300pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Déchaine, Rose-Marie and Manfredi, Victor B. 1997. Object positions in Benue-Kwa: papers from a workshop at Leiden University, June 1994. (Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics Publications, 4.) In Déchaine, Rose-Marie and Victor Manfredi (eds.) The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics. xii+254pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Edmondson, Jerold A. and Gregerson, Kenneth J. 1993. Tonality in Austronesian languages. (Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication, 24.) Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. xii+177pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Eifring, Halvor. 1995. Clause combination in Chinese. (Sinica Leidensia, 32.) Leiden: Brill. xii+436pp. (Originally presented as the author's thesis Includes bibliographical references (p. [392]-414) and index). (cf. référence complète)
  • Erkes, Eduard Gabelentz, Georg von der. 1956. Chinesische Grammatik. Berlin: Dt. Verl. der Wiss. 101pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Escure, Geneviève. 1997. Creole and dialect continua: standard acquisition processes in Belize and China (PRC). (Creole Language Library, 18.) Amsterdam: Benjamins. ix+307pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Fei Xin. 1436. Xingocha shenglan = The overall survey of the Star Raft. (cf. référence complète)
  • Francisco Varo. 1703. Arte de la Lengua Mandarina. Impreso en Canton. 150pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P. 1962. The East African coast: select documents from the first to the early nineteeth century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P. 1966. The East African coast: select documents from the first to the early nineteeth century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Fretheim, Thorstein and Gundel, Jeannette K. (eds.) 1996. Word Order an Cognitive Status in Mandarin. In Fretheim, Thorstein and Gundel, Jeannette K. (eds.), Reference and Referent Accessibility. (cf. référence complète)
  • Fretheim, Thorstein and Gundel, Jeannette K. (eds.) 1996. Written Discourse Segmentation: The Function of Unstressed Pronouns in Mandarin Chinese. In Fretheim, Thorstein and Gundel, Jeannette K. (eds.), Reference and Referent Accessibility. (cf. référence complète)
  • Gabelentz, Georg von der. 1960. Chinesische Grammatik; mit Ausschluss des niederen Stiles und der heutigen Umgangssprache: mit vier Schrifttafeln. Halle (Saale): Niemeyer. 549pp. (Added t. p. in Chinese Includes indexes Originally published in Leipzig, 1881). (cf. référence complète)
  • Gang, Mu Cheng. 2014. Guangnan fangyan yanjiu. Kunming: Yunnan taxue chubanshe. 189pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Gassmann, Robert H. 1997. Grundstrukturen der antikchinesischen Syntax: eine erklärende Grammatik. (Schweizer asiatische Studien / Monographien, 26.) Bern: Lang. 352pp. (Includes bibliographical references and index). (cf. référence complète)
  • Gassmann, Robert H. and Behr, Wolfgang. 2005. Antikchinesisch: ein Lehrbuch in drei Teilen. (Schweizer asiatische Studien / Studienhefte, 18, 1-3.) Bern: Lang. (cf. référence complète)
  • George van Driem. 1999. A new theory on the origin of Chinese. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 18. 43-58. (cf. référence complète)
  • Giora, Rachel and Lee Cher-Leng. 1996. Written Discourse Segmentation: The Function of Unstressed Pronouns in Mandarin Chinese. In Fretheim, Thorstein and Gundel, Jeannette K. (eds.), Reference and Referent Accessibility, 113-140. (cf. référence complète)
  • Givón, Talmy. 1995. Word-order in Mandarin Chinese. In Givón, Talmy (ed.), Functionalism and grammar, 314-325. Amsterdam: Benjamins. (cf. référence complète)
  • Gong Zhen. 1434. Xiyang fanguozhi = Records of foreing countries in the Western Ocean. (cf. référence complète)
  • Hasan and loran and Butt (eds.) 1996. The 'Complement' in Chinese Grammar: A Functional Reinterpretation. In Hasan and loran and Butt (eds.), Functional Descriptions. Theory in Practice. (cf. référence complète)
  • Hasan, Ruqaiya and Fries, Peter H. (eds.) 1995. On Theme in Chinese: From Clause to Discourse. In Hasan, Ruqaiya and Fries, Peter H. (eds.), On Subject and Theme. A Discourse Functional Perspective. (cf. référence complète)
  • Horie, Kaoru and Sato, Shigeru (eds.) 2001. Cognitive - functional linguistics in an East Asian context. Tokyo: Kurosio. iv+339pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Jaszczolt, Katarzyna and Ken Turner (eds.) 1996. A functional approach to two `focussing´ constructions in English and Chinese. In Jaszczolt, Katarzyna and Ken Turner (eds.), Contrastive Semantics and Pragmatics. Volume I: Meanings and Representations. (cf. référence complète)
  • Majewicz, Alfred F. (ed.) 1991. Contributions to linguistic research from China. (Linguistic and Oriental Studies from Poznan : Monograph Supplement Series, 1.) Posnan: Adam Mickiewicz Univ. 72pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Packard, Jerome L. (ed.) 1997. New approaches to Chinese word: morphology, phonology, and the lexicon in modern and ancient Chinese. (Trends in Linguistics : Studies and Monographs, 105.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. xiv+386pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Wang, William S-Y. (ed.) 1995. The ancestry of the Chinese language. (Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series, No., 8.) Berkeley: Project on Linguistic Analysis. xi+438pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Xrakovskij, Viktor (ed.) 1997. The problem of describing plurality of actions in Chinese. In Xrakovskij, Viktor (ed.), Typology of iterative constructions. München: Lincom Europa. (cf. référence complète)

Seules sont affichées les 100 premières référence. Pour une liste exhaustive sur Glottolog

Autres liens sur cette langue

Informations tirées de Lexvo.org, de dbpedia.org, de WALS, de PHOIBLE, et de Glottolog