German

Code ISO 639-3: deu

Classification: Indo-European > Germanic > Northwest Germanic > West Germanic > Franconian > High Franconian > Standard German

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

Pays ou régions dans lesquelles l'entrepôt dispose d'enregistrements
Région Code Nombre
Austria AT 12
Germany DE 11
France FR 2
Italy IT 62
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: German

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Complex Sentences:'Want' Complement Subjects = "Subject is left implicit"
  • Complex Sentences:'When' Clauses = "Balanced/deranked"
  • Complex Sentences:Purpose Clauses = "Balanced/deranked"
  • Complex Sentences:Reason Clauses = "Balanced"
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Obliques = "Relative pronoun"
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Subjects = "Relative pronoun"
  • Lexicon:Finger and Hand = "Different" (réf. Breul 1906 )
  • Lexicon:Green and Blue = "Green vs. blue"
  • Lexicon:Hand and Arm = "Different" (réf. Breul 1906 )
  • Lexicon:M in First Person Singular = "m in first person singular"
  • Lexicon:M in Second Person Singular = "No m in second person singular"
  • Lexicon:M-T Pronouns = "M-T pronouns, paradigmatic"
  • Lexicon:N-M Pronouns = "No N-M pronouns"
  • Lexicon:Number of Basic Colour Categories = "11"
  • Lexicon:Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories = "6"
  • Lexicon:Numeral Bases = "Decimal"
  • Lexicon:Red and Yellow = "Red vs. yellow"
  • Lexicon:Tea = "Words derived from Min Nan Chinese te"
  • Morphology:Case Syncretism = "Core and non-core"
  • Morphology:Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Case + number"
  • Morphology:Exponence of Tense-Aspect-Mood Inflection = "monoexponential TAM"
  • Morphology:Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Exclusively concatenative"
  • Morphology:Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb = "2-3 categories per word"
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases = "Dependent marking"
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in the Clause = "Dependent marking"
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology = "Dependent-marking"
  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Strongly suffixing" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Morphology:Reduplication = "No productive reduplication" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Morphology:Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking = "Syncretic"
  • Morphology:Zero Marking of A and P Arguments = "Non-zero marking"
  • Nominal Categories:Asymmetrical Case-Marking = "Syncretism in relevant NP-types" (réf. Duden 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural suffix" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Comitatives and Instrumentals = "Identity"
  • Nominal Categories:Definite Articles = "Definite word distinct from demonstrative" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives = "No distance contrast"
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "No distributive numerals"
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "Marked by preceding word"
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "No distributive numerals"
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "No distributive numerals"
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "No distributive numerals"
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "Marked by preceding word"
  • Nominal Categories:Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns = "3rd person singular only" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns = "No inclusive/exclusive"
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection = "No inclusive/exclusive"
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Articles = "Indefinite word same as 'one'" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Pronouns = "Mixed"
  • Nominal Categories:Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns = "Differentiated"
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Cases = "4 cases" (réf. Duden 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Genders = "Three"
  • Nominal Categories:Numeral Classifiers = "Absent"
  • Nominal Categories:Occurrence of Nominal Plurality = "All nouns, always obligatory"
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "First, two-th, three-th"
  • Nominal Categories:Person Marking on Adpositions = "No person marking" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Nominal Categories:Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns = "Person-number stem"
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "Binary politeness distinction"
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "Case suffixes" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes = "No possessive affixes" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives = "Identical"
  • Nominal Categories:Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems = "Sex-based"
  • Nominal Categories:Systems of Gender Assignment = "Semantic and formal"
  • Nominal Categories:The Associative Plural = "Unique periphrastic associative plural"
  • Nominal Categories:Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives = "Related by gender markers" (réf. Curme 1922 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Action Nominal Constructions = "Ergative-Possessive" (réf. Esau 1973 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Nominal and Verbal Conjunction = "Identity"
  • Nominal Syntax:Number of Possessive Nouns = "None reported"
  • Nominal Syntax:Obligatory Possessive Inflection = "Absent"
  • Nominal Syntax:Possessive Classification = "No possessive classification"
  • Other:Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks = "Affective meanings"
  • Phonology:Absence of Common Consonants = "All present" (réf. Kohler 1999, Moulton 1962, Wangler 1972 )
  • Phonology:Consonant Inventories = "Average" (réf. Kohler 1999, Moulton 1962, Wangler 1972 )
  • Phonology:Consonant-Vowel Ratio = "Low" (réf. Kohler 1999, Wangler 1972, Moulton 1962 )
  • Phonology:Fixed Stress Locations = "No fixed stress" (réf. Jessen 1999 )
  • Phonology:Front Rounded Vowels = "High and mid" (réf. Kohler 1999, Wangler 1972, Moulton 1962 )
  • Phonology:Glottalized Consonants = "No glottalized consonants" (réf. Moulton 1962, Wangler 1972, Kohler 1999 )
  • Phonology:Lateral Consonants = "/l/, no obstruent laterals" (réf. Wangler 1972, Moulton 1962, Kohler 1999 )
  • Phonology:Presence of Uncommon Consonants = "None" (réf. Kohler 1999, Moulton 1962, Wangler 1972 )
  • Phonology:Rhythm Types = "Trochaic" (réf. Jessen 1999 )
  • Phonology:Syllable Structure = "Complex" (réf. Wangler 1972, Kohler 1999, Moulton 1962 )
  • Phonology:The Velar Nasal = "No initial velar nasal"
  • Phonology:Tone = "No tones" (réf. Kohler 1999, Moulton 1962, Wangler 1972 )
  • Phonology:Uvular Consonants = "Uvular continuants only" (réf. Wangler 1972, Moulton 1962, Kohler 1999 )
  • Phonology:Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems = "None missing in /p t k b d g/" (réf. Wangler 1972, Moulton 1962, Kohler 1999 )
  • Phonology:Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives = "In both plosives and fricatives" (réf. Kohler 1999, Wangler 1972, Moulton 1962 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Nasalization = "Contrast absent" (réf. Moulton 1962, Kohler 1999 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Quality Inventories = "Large (7-14)" (réf. Kohler 1999, Wangler 1972, Moulton 1962 )
  • Phonology:Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems = "Coda consonant" (réf. Jessen 1999 )
  • Phonology:Weight-Sensitive Stress = "Right-oriented: One of the last three" (réf. Jessen 1999 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases = "Nominative - accusative (standard)"
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns = "Nominative - accusative (standard)"
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Verbal Person Marking = "Accusative" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Antipassive Constructions = "No antipassive"
  • Simple Clauses:Applicative Constructions = "No applicative construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' = "Indirect-object construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Expression of Pronominal Subjects = "Obligatory pronouns in subject position" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "No predicate negation"
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Morphemes = "Negative particle" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions = "Morphological but no compound" (réf. Harbert 1977, Durrell 1992 )
  • Simple Clauses:Order of Person Markers on the Verb = "A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Other Roles of Applied Objects = "No applicative construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Passive Constructions = "Present" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Periphrastic Causative Constructions = "Sequential but no purposive" (réf. Harbert 1977, Durrell 1992 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Interrogative word order" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Productivity of the Antipassive Construction = "no antipassive"
  • Simple Clauses:Reciprocal Constructions = "Mixed" (réf. Wiemer and Nedjalkov 2007 )
  • Simple Clauses:Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation = "Non-assignable"
  • Simple Clauses:Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation = "Symmetric"
  • Simple Clauses:Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking = "No zero realization" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Verbal Person Marking = "Only the A argument" (réf. Borgert and Nyhan 1975 )
  • Verbal Categories:Coding of Evidentiality = "Modal morpheme" (réf. Palmer 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:Epistemic Possibility = "Verbal constructions" (réf. Zifonun et al. 1997 )
  • Verbal Categories:Imperative-Hortative Systems = "Neither type of system"
  • Verbal Categories:Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking = "Overlap for both possibility and necessity" (réf. Zifonun et al. 1997 )
  • Verbal Categories:Perfective/Imperfective Aspect = "No grammatical marking" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect suffixes" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality = "Indirect only" (réf. Palmer 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:Situational Possibility = "Verbal constructions" (réf. Zifonun et al. 1997 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect = "Tense" (réf. Lide and Magnusson 1970 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion in Imperatives and Hortatives = "None (= no suppletive imperatives reported in the reference material)"
  • Verbal Categories:The Future Tense = "No inflectional future" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Morphological Imperative = "Second singular"
  • Verbal Categories:The Optative = "Inflectional optative absent"
  • Verbal Categories:The Past Tense = "Present, no remoteness distinctions" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Perfect = "From possessive" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Prohibitive = "Normal imperative + normal negative"
  • Verbal Categories:Verbal Number and Suppletion = "None" (réf. Lide and Magnusson 1970 )
  • Word Order:Languages with two Dominant Orders of Subject, Object, and Verb = "SOV or SVO" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Multiple Negative Constructions in SOV Languages = "SONegV/SVONeg" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Multiple Negative Constructions in SVO Languages = "SVONeg/SONegV" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:NegSOV Order = "No NegSOV" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:NegSVO Order = "No NegSVO" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Adjective-Noun" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Prepositions" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause = "Initial subordinator word" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Degree Word and Adjective = "Degree word-Adjective" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Demonstrative-Noun" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Noun-Genitive" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "Type 1 / Type 2" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Numeral-Noun" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "No dominant order" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb = "No dominant order" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Noun-Relative clause" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "SV" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "No dominant order" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Initial interrogative phrase" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "More than one position" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "No question particle" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Position of negative words relative to beginning and end of clause and with respect to adjacency to verb = "End, not immed postverbal" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Postnominal relative clauses = "Noun-Relative clause (NRel) dominant" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "VNeg" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "NegV" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "Other"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Other"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Other"
  • Word Order:SNegOV Order = "No SNegOV" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:SNegVO Order = "No SNegVO" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:SONegV Order = "Word&NoDoubleNeg" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:SOVNeg Order = "NoSOVNeg" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:SVNegO Order = "No SVNegO" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:SVONeg Order = "NoDoubleNeg" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SOV Languages = "More than one construction" (réf. Lederer 1969 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SVO Languages = "More than one construction" (réf. Lederer 1969 )

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_ger

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • Standard German (SPA) (39 segments)
    aː , b , d , eː , f , h , iː , j , kʰ , l , m , n , oː , pf , pʰ , s , ts , tʰ , uː , v , x , yː , z , øː , ŋ , œ , ɐ , ɔ , ə , ɛ , ɛː , ɡ , ɪ , ʀ , ʃ , ʊ , ʏ , ʒ , ʔ
  • Standard German (UPSID) (41 segments)
    ai , au , aː , b , d , eː , f , h , iː , j , k , l , m , n , oː , p , pf , s , t , ts , uː , v , x , yː , z , øː , ŋ , œ , ɐ , ɔ , ɔi , ə , ɛ , ɛː , ɡ , ɪ , ʀ , ʃ , ʊ , ʏ , ʒ

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

  • 1959. Türk dilinde ve baska dillerde özlesme. (Türk Dil Kurumu yayinlari, 176.) Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi. (cf. référence complète)
  • 1972. Alman ve macar dillerinde özlesme. (Türk Dil Kurumu yayinlari, 358.) Ankara: Ankara Üniv. Basimevi. 41pp. (Teilw. aus dem Dt. übers. - Auch in: Türk dili belleten : seri 3,12/13. TDK tanitma yayinlari dil konulari dizisi. TDK tanitma yayinlari dil konulari dizisi ; 20). (cf. référence complète)
  • 1998. Duden Grammatik der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. (Duden, 4.) Mannheim: Dudenverl. 912pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2003. German: with 2000-word two-way dictionary. (Lonely planet phrasebooks.) Footscray: Lonely Planet. 254pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • A. K. Becker. 2003. "Ruhrdeutsch": Die Sprache des Ruhrgebiets in einer umfassenden Analyse. Albert-Ludwigs-Universität zu Freiburg. 436pp. (Doctoral dissertation). (cf. référence complète)
  • Abraham, Werner (ed.) 1991. Discourse particles: descriptive and theoretical investigations on the logical, syntactic and pragmatic properties of discourse particles in German. (Pragmatics and Beyond, New Series, 12.) Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abraham, Werner. 1986. The grammar of German haben. In Kastovsky, Dieter and Szwedek, Aleksander (eds.), Linguistics across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. Vol 1: Linguistic Theory and Historical Linguistics. Vol 2: Descriptive, Contrastive, and Applied Linguistics. In Honour of Jacek Fisiak on the Occasion of His Fiftieth Birthday, 781-798. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abraham, Werner. 1999. Präteritumschwund in German: The Parsing Trigger. Folia Linguistica 33. 39-58. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abraham, Werner. 2000. Modal particles in German: Word classification and legacy beyond grammaticalisation. In Vogel, Petra M. and Comrie, Bernard (eds.), Approaches to the Typology of Word Classes, 321-350. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton. (cf. référence complète)
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  • Ammon, Ulrich. 2001. English as a Future Language of Teaching at German Universities? A Question of Difficult Consequences, Posed by the Decline of German as a Language of Science. In Ammon, Ulrich (ed.), The Dominance of English as a Language of Science. Effects on Other Languages and Language Communities, 343-362. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton. (cf. référence complète)
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  • Anderwald, Lieselotte. 2012. Richard J. Whitt. Evidentiality and Perception Verbs in English and German. Zeitschrift für Rezensionen zur germanistischen Sprachwissenschaft 4. 262-266. De Gruyter. (cf. référence complète)
  • Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2007. 10. Style online: Doing hip-hop on the German-speaking Web. In Auer, Peter (ed.), Style and Social Identities. Alternative Approaches to Linguistic Heterogeneity, 279-320. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (cf. référence complète)
  • Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2012. Repertoires, characters and scenes: Sociolinguistic difference in Turkish-German comedy. Multilingua 31. 301-326. De Gruyter Mouton. (cf. référence complète)
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