Japanese

Code ISO 639-3: jpn

Classification: Japonic > Japanesic > Japan-Taiwan Japanese > Japanese

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

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Région Code Nombre
France FR 1
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: Japanese

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Complex Sentences:'Want' Complement Subjects = "Desiderative verbal affix" (réf. Shibatani 1990 )
  • Complex Sentences:'When' Clauses = "Balanced/deranked" (réf. Kuno 1973 )
  • Complex Sentences:Purpose Clauses = "Balanced/deranked" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Complex Sentences:Reason Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. Kuno 1973 )
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Obliques = "Gap"
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Subjects = "Gap"
  • Complex Sentences:Utterance Complement Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. Kuno 1973 )
  • Lexicon:Finger and Hand = "Different" (réf. Takahashi 1938 )
  • Lexicon:Green and Blue = "Green vs. blue"
  • Lexicon:Hand and Arm = "Identical" (réf. Takahashi 1938 )
  • Lexicon:M in First Person Singular = "No m in first person singular" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Lexicon:M in Second Person Singular = "m in second person singular" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Lexicon:M-T Pronouns = "No M-T pronouns" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Lexicon:N-M Pronouns = "No N-M pronouns" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Lexicon:Number of Basic Colour Categories = "11"
  • Lexicon:Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories = "6"
  • Lexicon:Numeral Bases = "Decimal"
  • Lexicon:Red and Yellow = "Red vs. yellow"
  • Lexicon:Tea = "Words derived from Sinitic cha" (réf. Malherbe and Rosenberg 1996 )
  • Morphology:Case Syncretism = "No case marking" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Monoexponential case" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Kuno 1973, Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Tense-Aspect-Mood Inflection = "monoexponential TAM" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986, Kuno 1973 )
  • Morphology:Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Exclusively concatenative" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Kuno 1973, Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb = "4-5 categories per word" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases = "Dependent marking" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in the Clause = "Dependent marking" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology = "Dependent-marking" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Strongly suffixing" (réf. Kim 1991, Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Reduplication = "Full reduplication only" (réf. Vance 2001 )
  • Morphology:Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking = "No subject person/number marking" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Morphology:Zero Marking of A and P Arguments = "Non-zero marking" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Asymmetrical Case-Marking = "Symmetrical" (réf. Kaiser et al. 2001, Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural suffix" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Comitatives and Instrumentals = "Differentiation" (réf. Lewin et al. 1983 )
  • Nominal Categories:Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers = "Formally similar, with interrogative" (réf. Fukushima 1991 )
  • Nominal Categories:Definite Articles = "No definite, but indefinite article" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives = "Three-way contrast" (réf. Kuno 1973 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "Marked by suffix" (réf. Gil 1991 )
  • Nominal Categories:Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns = "3rd person only, but also non-singular" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns = "No inclusive/exclusive" (réf. Martin 1991a )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection = "No person marking" (réf. Martin 1991a )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Articles = "Indefinite word distinct from 'one'" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Pronouns = "Interrogative-based" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns = "Identical" (réf. Tsujimura 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Cases = "8-9 cases" (réf. Kaiser et al. 2001, Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Numeral Classifiers = "Obligatory"
  • Nominal Categories:Occurrence of Nominal Plurality = "Only human nouns, optional" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "One-th, two-th, three-th" (réf. Lewin et al. 1983 )
  • Nominal Categories:Person Marking on Adpositions = "No person marking" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns = "Person stem + nominal plural affix" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "Pronouns avoided for politeness" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "Postpositional clitics" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes = "No possessive affixes" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Categories:Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives = "Different inflection"
  • Nominal Categories:The Associative Plural = "Associative same as additive plural" (réf. Hinds 1986, Downing 1996 )
  • Nominal Categories:Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives = "Unrelated" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Action Nominal Constructions = "Double-Possessive" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Adjectives without Nouns = "Marked by mixed or other strategies"
  • Nominal Syntax:Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses = "Genitives and adjectives collapsed"
  • Nominal Syntax:Nominal and Verbal Conjunction = "Differentiation" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Noun Phrase Conjunction = "'And' identical to 'with'" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Number of Possessive Nouns = "None reported" (réf. Hinds 1986, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Obligatory Possessive Inflection = "Absent" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Possessive Classification = "No possessive classification" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Other:Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks = "Affective meanings"
  • Phonology:Absence of Common Consonants = "All present" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Consonant Inventories = "Moderately small" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Consonant-Vowel Ratio = "Average" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Front Rounded Vowels = "None" (réf. Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990, Martin 1952, Bloch 1950 )
  • Phonology:Glottalized Consonants = "No glottalized consonants" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Lateral Consonants = "No laterals" (réf. Martin 1952, Jorden 1963, Bloch 1950, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Presence of Uncommon Consonants = "None" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Syllable Structure = "Moderately complex" (réf. Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990, Martin 1952, Bloch 1950 )
  • Phonology:The Velar Nasal = "No velar nasal" (réf. Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Tone = "Simple tone system" (réf. Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990, Martin 1952, Bloch 1950 )
  • Phonology:Uvular Consonants = "Uvular continuants only" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems = "None missing in /p t k b d g/" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives = "In both plosives and fricatives" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Nasalization = "Contrast absent" (réf. Hinds 1986, Okada 1999 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Quality Inventories = "Average (5-6)" (réf. Martin 1952, Bloch 1950, Jorden 1963, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases = "Nominative - accusative (standard)"
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns = "Nominative - accusative (standard)"
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Verbal Person Marking = "Neutral" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Antipassive Constructions = "No antipassive"
  • Simple Clauses:Applicative Constructions = "No applicative construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Comparative Constructions = "Locational" (réf. Kuno 1973 )
  • Simple Clauses:Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' = "Indirect-object construction" (réf. Kuno 1973 )
  • Simple Clauses:Expression of Pronominal Subjects = "Optional pronouns in subject position" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "Predicate negation also present" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Morphemes = "Negative affix" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nominal and Locational Predication = "Different" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions = "Morphological but no compound" (réf. Shibatani 1990 )
  • Simple Clauses:Order of Person Markers on the Verb = "A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Other Roles of Applied Objects = "No applicative construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Passive Constructions = "Present" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Question particle" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Adjectives = "Mixed" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Possession = "Locational" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Productivity of the Antipassive Construction = "no antipassive"
  • Simple Clauses:Reciprocal Constructions = "Distinct from reflexive" (réf. Alpatov and Nedjalkov 2007 )
  • Simple Clauses:Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation = "A/Fin and A/Cat" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation = "Asymmetric" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking = "No person marking" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Verbal Person Marking = "No person marking" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Simple Clauses:Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals = "Impossible" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Verbal Categories:Coding of Evidentiality = "Verbal affix or clitic" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Verbal Categories:Epistemic Possibility = "Other" (réf. Johnson 1994, Hinds 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:Imperative-Hortative Systems = "Neither type of system" (réf. Alpatov 2001 )
  • Verbal Categories:Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking = "Overlap for either possibility or necessity" (réf. Johnson 1994, Hinds 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:Perfective/Imperfective Aspect = "No grammatical marking" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect suffixes" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality = "Indirect only" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Verbal Categories:Situational Possibility = "Affixes on verbs" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect = "None" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion in Imperatives and Hortatives = "None (= no suppletive imperatives reported in the reference material)"
  • Verbal Categories:The Future Tense = "No inflectional future" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Morphological Imperative = "Second person number-neutral" (réf. Alpatov 2001, Hinds 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Optative = "Inflectional optative absent" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Past Tense = "Present, no remoteness distinctions" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Perfect = "No perfect" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Prohibitive = "Normal imperative + special negative" (réf. Alpatov 2001, Sansom 1995 )
  • Verbal Categories:Verbal Number and Suppletion = "None" (réf. Martin 1975 )
  • Word Order:Internally-headed relative clauses = "Internally-headed occurs as nondominant type" (réf. Hinds 1986, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:NegSOV Order = "No NegSOV" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Adjective-Noun" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Postpositions" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause = "Final subordinator word" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Degree Word and Adjective = "Degree word-Adjective" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Demonstrative-Noun" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Genitive-Noun" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "[V-Neg]" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Numeral-Noun" (réf. Hinds 1986, Kim 1991, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "OV" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb = "XOV" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Relative clause-Noun" (réf. Hinds 1986, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "SV" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "SOV" (réf. Shibatani 1990, Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Not initial interrogative phrase" (réf. Hinds 1986, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "MorphNeg" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "Final" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "[V-Neg]" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Prenominal relative clauses = "Relative clause-Noun (RelN) dominant" (réf. Hinds 1986, Shibatani 1990 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "None" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "OV and AdjN"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "OV and Postpositions"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "OV and RelN"
  • Word Order:SNegOV Order = "No SNegOV" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:SONegV Order = "No SONegV" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:SOVNeg Order = "Suffix&NoDoubleNeg" (réf. Hinds 1986 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SOV Languages = "SO[V-Neg]" (réf. Hinds 1986 )

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_jpn

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • Nuclear Japanese (SPA) (40 segments)
    a , aː , b , d , d̠ʒ , h , i , iː , j , k , kː , m , n , p , pː , s , sː , t , tsː , tː , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃː , w , z , çː , ŋ , ɔ , ɔː , ɛ , ɛː , ɡ , ɯ , ɯː , ɯ̃ , ɾ , ʃ , ʃː , ʔ
  • Nuclear Japanese (UPSID) (20 segments)
    a , b , d̪ , h , i , j , k , m , n̪ , p , s̪ , t̪ , w , z̪ , ɔ , ɛ , ɡ , ɯ , ɴ , ɾ

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

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  • 1997. Jazyki Mira - Mongol'skie jazyki, tunguso-man'czurskie jazyki, japonskij jazyk, korejskij jazyk. (Jazyki mira, 5.) Moskva: Indrik. 407pp. (cf. référence complète)
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