Polish

Code ISO 639-3: pol

Classification: Indo-European > Balto-Slavic > Slavic > West Slavic > Lechitic > Polish

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

Pays ou régions dans lesquelles l'entrepôt dispose d'enregistrements
Région Code Nombre
France FR 1
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: Polish

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Lexicon:Finger and Hand = "Different" (réf. Bulas and Whitfield 1983 )
  • Lexicon:Hand and Arm = "Different" (réf. Bulas and Whitfield 1983 )
  • Lexicon:Tea = "Others"
  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Strongly suffixing" (réf. Brooks 1975, Stone 1980, Bielec 1998, Siewierska 1993 )
  • Nominal Categories:Asymmetrical Case-Marking = "Syncretism in relevant NP-types" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural suffix" (réf. Stone 1980, Bielec 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Comitatives and Instrumentals = "Differentiation" (réf. Laskowski 1972 )
  • Nominal Categories:Definite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "Marked by preceding word" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns = "3rd person only, but also non-singular" (réf. Szober 1957 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Pronouns = "Interrogative-based" (réf. Haspelmath 1997 )
  • Nominal Categories:Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns = "Differentiated" (réf. Rothstein 1993 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Cases = "6-7 cases" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "First, second, three-th" (réf. Wójtowcz 1972 )
  • Nominal Categories:Person Marking on Adpositions = "No person marking" (réf. Szober 1957 )
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "Binary politeness distinction" (réf. Mühlhäusler and Harré 1990 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "Case suffixes" (réf. Bielec 1998, Stone 1980 )
  • Nominal Categories:The Associative Plural = "Associative same as additive plural" (réf. Mikhalik 1984 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Noun Phrase Conjunction = "'And' different from 'with'" (réf. Brooks 1975 )
  • Phonology:Absence of Common Consonants = "All present"
  • Phonology:Consonant Inventories = "Moderately large"
  • Phonology:Consonant-Vowel Ratio = "High"
  • Phonology:Fixed Stress Locations = "Penultimate" (réf. Franks 1985 )
  • Phonology:Front Rounded Vowels = "None"
  • Phonology:Glottalized Consonants = "No glottalized consonants"
  • Phonology:Lateral Consonants = "/l/, no obstruent laterals"
  • Phonology:Presence of Uncommon Consonants = "None"
  • Phonology:Rhythm Types = "Trochaic" (réf. Franks 1985 )
  • Phonology:Syllable Structure = "Complex"
  • Phonology:Tone = "No tones"
  • Phonology:Uvular Consonants = "None"
  • Phonology:Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems = "None missing in /p t k b d g/"
  • Phonology:Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives = "In both plosives and fricatives"
  • Phonology:Vowel Quality Inventories = "Average (5-6)"
  • Phonology:Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems = "No weight" (réf. Franks 1985 )
  • Phonology:Weight-Sensitive Stress = "Fixed stress (no weight-sensitivity)" (réf. Franks 1985 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Verbal Person Marking = "Accusative" (réf. Szober 1957 )
  • Simple Clauses:Expression of Pronominal Subjects = "Subject clitics on variable host" (réf. Stone 1980 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "Predicate negation also present" (réf. Haspelmath 1997 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Morphemes = "Negative particle" (réf. Stone 1980, Bielec 1998 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nominal and Locational Predication = "Identical" (réf. Brooks 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Order of Person Markers on the Verb = "A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb" (réf. Szober 1957 )
  • Simple Clauses:Passive Constructions = "Present" (réf. Szober 1957 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Question particle" (réf. Stone 1980, Bielec 1998 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Adjectives = "Nonverbal encoding" (réf. Brooks 1975 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Possession = "'Have'"
  • Simple Clauses:Reciprocal Constructions = "Mixed" (réf. Wiemer 2007 )
  • Simple Clauses:Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking = "No zero realization" (réf. Szober 1957 )
  • Simple Clauses:Verbal Person Marking = "Only the A argument" (réf. Szober 1957 )
  • Simple Clauses:Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals = "Possible" (réf. Brooks 1975 )
  • Verbal Categories:Epistemic Possibility = "Verbal constructions" (réf. Mazur 1983 )
  • Verbal Categories:Imperative-Hortative Systems = "Neither type of system"
  • Verbal Categories:Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking = "Overlap for both possibility and necessity" (réf. Mazur 1983 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect suffixes" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Verbal Categories:Situational Possibility = "Verbal constructions" (réf. Brooks 1975 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect = "Tense and aspect" (réf. Mazur 1983 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion in Imperatives and Hortatives = "None (= no suppletive imperatives reported in the reference material)"
  • Verbal Categories:The Morphological Imperative = "Second singular and second plural" (réf. Rothstein 1993 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Prohibitive = "Normal imperative + normal negative" (réf. Rothstein 1993 )
  • Verbal Categories:Verbal Number and Suppletion = "None" (réf. Mazur 1983 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:NegSVO Order = "No NegSVO" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Adjective-Noun" (réf. Bielec 1998, Brooks 1975 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Prepositions" (réf. Bielec 1998, Brooks 1975, Stone 1980 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause = "Initial subordinator word" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Order of Degree Word and Adjective = "Degree word-Adjective" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Demonstrative-Noun"
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Noun-Genitive" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "NegV" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Numeral-Noun" (réf. Brooks 1975 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "VO" (réf. Brooks 1975, Siewierska 1993 )
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Noun-Relative clause"
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "No dominant order" (réf. Siewierska 1993 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "SVO" (réf. Brooks 1975, Siewierska 1993 )
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Initial interrogative phrase"
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "SNegVO" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "Initial" (réf. Bielec 1998, Stone 1980 )
  • Word Order:Position of negative words relative to beginning and end of clause and with respect to adjacency to verb = "Immed preverbal" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Postnominal relative clauses = "Noun-Relative clause (NRel) dominant"
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "None" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "NegV" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "VO and AdjN"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "VO and Prepositions"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "VO and NRel"
  • Word Order:SNegVO Order = "Word&NoDoubleNeg" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:SVNegO Order = "No SVNegO" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:SVONeg Order = "No SVONeg" (réf. Bielec 1998 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SVO Languages = "SNegVO" (réf. Bielec 1998 )

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_pol

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • Polish (PH) (37 segments)
    a , b , c , dʑ , d̪ , d̪z̪ , d̻z̻ , e , f , i , j , k , l̪ , m , n̪ , o , p , r , s̪ , s̻ , tɕ , t̪ , t̪s̪ , t̻s̻ , u , v , w , x , z̪ , z̻ , ŋ , ɕ , ɟ , ɡ , ɨ , ɲ , ʑ

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

  • Anderson, Stephen. 1966. Aspects on the Theory of Clitics. (X.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Bartnicka, Barbara and Hansen, Björn and Klemm, Wojtek. 2005. Grammatik des Polnischen. (Slavolinguistica, 620.) München: Sagner. xiv+620pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Biel, Lucia. 2011. Areas of similarity and difference in legal phraseology: Collocations of key terms in UK and Polish company law. In Pamies, Antonio and Nadal, Lucı́a Luque and Pazos, José Manuel (eds.), In Multilingual phraseography: Translation and learning applications. Vol. 2. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bielec, Dana. 1998. Polish: an essential grammar. London: Routledge. xi+294pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Brad Sabin Hill. 2015. Judeo-Slavic. In Lily Kahn and Aaron D. Rubin (eds.), Handbook of Jewish languages, 599-618. Leiden: Brill. (cf. référence complète)
  • Brooks, Maria Z. 1975. Polish Reference Grammar. (SPRT, 2.) Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. xvi+580pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bulas, Kazimierz and Francis J. Whitfield. 1983. The Kosciuszko Foundation Dictionary. Volume 1: English-Polish and Volume 2: Polish-English. New York: The Kosciuszko Foundation. (cf. référence complète)
  • Comrie, Bernard. 1976. Irregular Stress in Polish and Macedonian. 227-240pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dornisch, Ewa. 1999. Multiple WH-Questions in Polish: the interactions between Wh-Phrases and Clitics. Ann Arbor: UMI. 275pp. (Cornell Univ., PhD Thesis, 1998). (cf. référence complète)
  • Dubinski, Aleksander. 1979. Karaimische Handschriften in polnischen Sammlungen. [147]-150pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Eichler, Ernst and Walther, Hans. 1990. Onomastica Slavogermanica XIX: Hans Walther zum 70. Geburtstag. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig : Philologisch-historische Klasse, 73.2.) Berlin: Akademie-Verl. 257pp. (Einzelaufn. eines Ztsch.heftes). (cf. référence complète)
  • Feldstein, Ronald F. and Franks, Steven L. 2002. Polish. (Languages of the World : Materials, 393.) München: Lincom Europa. iii+138pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Franks, S. 1985. Extrametricality and Stress in Polish. Linguistic Inquiry 16. 144-151. (cf. référence complète)
  • Gussmann, Edmund. 2007. The phonology of Polish. (The phonology of the world's languages.) Oxford: Univ. Press. xii+367pp. (Includes bibliographical references (p. [313]-322) and indexes). (cf. référence complète)
  • Hansen, Björn. 2001. Das slavische Modalauxiliar: Semantik und Grammatikalisierung im Russischen, Polnischen, Serbisch/Kroatischen und Altkirchenslavischen. (Slavolinguistica, 2.) München: Sagner. 452pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro and Tanimoto, Kazuyuki. 1974. Orok songs. 1-27pp. (Bulletin of the institute for the study of north eurasian cultures). (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1956. The substantive inflection of Orok. 77-96pp. (Journal of the Linguistic society of Japan). (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1958. Orok texts. 85-95pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1959. The verb inflection of Orok. 34-73pp. (Aus: Kokugo-Kenyu = Inquiries into the Japanes language, 9 (1959), S. - 73). (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1968. The Orok third person pronoun nooni. 82-84pp. (Aus: Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher, 40 (1968),1/2, S. - 84). (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1970. Materials for the study of the Orok language. 31-55pp. (The annual report on cultural sciences). (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1970. Orok kinship terminology. 133-156pp. (Bulletin of the Institute for the Study of North Eurasian Cultures). (cf. référence complète)
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1973. Orok verb-stem-. 1-17pp. (Bulletin of the institute for the study of north eurasian cultures 7). (cf. référence complète)
  • Janusz Kucharczyk. 1999. Zaczynam Móvić po Polsku. Łódż: WING. (cf. référence complète)
  • Jassem, Wiktor and Richter, Lutosława. 1989. Neutralization of voicing in Polish obstruents. Journal of Phonetics 17. 317–326. (cf. référence complète)
  • Jassem, Wiktor. 2003. Illustrations of the IPA: Polish. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33. 103–107. Cambridge University Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Kopecka, Anetta. 2004. Étude typologique de l'expression de l'espace: localisation et déplacement en Français et en Polonais. Lyon. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Lyon; 332pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Laskowski, Roman. 1972. Polnische Grammatik. Leipzig: Verlag Enyklopädie. (cf. référence complète)
  • Mazur, B.W. 1983. Colloquial Polish. The Complete Course for Beginners. London and New York: Routledge. (cf. référence complète)
  • Michalik, Risard. 1984. Kratka polska gramatika. Sofija: Nauka i izkustvo. 189pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Mikhalik, Rishard. 1984. Kratka polska gramatika. Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. (cf. référence complète)
  • Mühlhäusler, Peter and Harré, Rom. 1990. Pronouns and People: the Linguistic construction of social and personal identity. Oxford: Blackwell. (cf. référence complète)
  • Penelope Eckert. 1996. Vowels and nail polish: The emergence of linguistic style in the preadolescent heterosexual marketplace. In Natasha Warner and Jocelyn Ahlers and Leela Bilmes and Monica Oliver and Suzanne Wertheim and Mel Chen (eds.), Proceedings of the 1996 Berkeley Women and Language Conference, 183–190. Berkeley Women and Language Group. (cf. référence complète)
  • Petrus Statorius. 1568. Polonicae grammaticae institutio. Wirzbięta. 216pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Pilsudski, Bronislaw. 1987. Materials for the Study of the Orok (Uilta) Language and Folklore 2. Poznan': Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. 286pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Pogonowski, Iwo Cyprian. 1993. Hippocrene Practical Dictionary Polish-English, English-Polish (Completely Revised). Hippocrene Books, New York. (cf. référence complète)
  • R. Meyer. 2005. VP-Fronting in Czech and Polish - A Case Study in Corpus-Oriented Grammar Research. In S. Dipper and M. Götze and M. Stede (eds.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure 02, 87–115. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ronald A. Feldstein and Steven L. Franks. n.d. Polish. (Languages of the World Materials.) Munich: LINCOM EUROPA. (cf. référence complète)
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  • Rothstein, Robert A. 1993. Polish. In Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, 686-758. London and New York: Routledge. (cf. référence complète)
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  • Scheel, Helmuth. 1934. Nachtrag zu dem Aufsatz in Jahrgang 1932 der Mitteilungen [Die Sendung des polnischen Gesandten von Stadnicki an die Pforte: (1733 - 1737)]. 205-206pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Seo, Seunghyun. 2001. The frequency of null subject in Russian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian: an analysis according to morphosyntactic environments. Ann Arbor: UMI. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Indiana; x+251pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Siewierska, Anna. 1993. Syntactic weight vs. information structure and word order variation in Polish. Journal of Linguistics 29. 233-265. (cf. référence complète)
  • Slowiaczek, Louisa and Dinnsen, Daniel. 1985. On the neutralizing status of Polish word-final devoicing. Journal of Phonetics 13. 325–341. (cf. référence complète)
  • Slowiaczek, Louisa and Szymanska, Helena. 1989. Perception of word-final devoicing in Polish. Journal of Phonetics 17. 205–212. (cf. référence complète)
  • Stanisław Zaborowski. 1519. Grammatices rudimenta seu octo partium orationis examen. Kraków. (cf. référence complète)
  • Stieber, Zdzisl/aw. 1973. A historical phonology of the Polish language. (Historical phonology of the Slavic languages, 05.) Heidelberg: Winter. 171pp. (Includes bibliographies). (cf. référence complète)
  • Stone, Gerald. 1980. An Introduction to Polish. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Stopa, Roman and Boleslaw Garlicki. 1966. Maly slownik suahilijsko-polski i polsko-suahilijski [Swahili-Polish and Polish-Swahili dictionary]. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. 126pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Stopa, Roman and Garlicki, Boleslaw. 1966. Kamusi ndogo ya Kiswahili-Kipolanda, Kipolanda-Kiswahili / Maly slownik suahilijsko-polski i polsko-suahilijski = Swahili-Polish and Polish-Swahili dictionary. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. (cf. référence complète)
  • Swan, O.E. 1966. A grammar of contemporary Polish. (X.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Swan, Oscar E. 2002. A grammar of contemporary Polish. Bloomington: Slavica. 496pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Szober, Stanislaw. 1957. Gramatyka Jezyka Polskiego. Warszawa: Powszechne Wydawnictwo Naukowe. (cf. référence complète)
  • Townsend, Charles E. and Janda, Laura A. 1996. Common &[and] comparative Slavic: phonology &[and] inflection with special attention to Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian &[and] Bulgarian. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publ. 310pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Tryjarski, Edward. 1976. A fragment of an unknown Armeno-Kipchak text from polish collections. Warszawa. S.290-302pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Tryjarski, Edward. 1977. A fragment of an unknown Armeno-Kipchak text from Polish collections. 291-[302]pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Urbanczyk, Stanislaw. 1987. Gramatyka wspólczesnego jezyka polskiego: skladnia, morfologia, fonologia. Warszawa: Panstw. Wydawn. Naukowe. (cf. référence complète)
  • Wiemer, Björn. (forthc.) Reciprocal and reflexive constructions in Polish. In Vladimir Nedjalkov, ed., (with the assistance of Emma Geniusiene and Zlatka Guentcheva). Typology of reciprocal constructions. München: Lincom Europa. (cf. référence complète)
  • Wójtowicz, Janina. 1972. Die polnischen Zahlen in Dialogen. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. (cf. référence complète)

Seules sont affichées les 100 premières référence. Pour une liste exhaustive sur Glottolog

Autres liens sur cette langue

Informations tirées de Lexvo.org, de dbpedia.org, de WALS, de PHOIBLE, et de Glottolog