Swahili (individual language)

Code ISO 639-3: swh

Classification: Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern Bantoid > Narrow Bantu > East Bantu > Northeast Savanna Bantu > Northeast Coastal Bantu > Coastal NEC Bantu > Sabaki-Swahili > Swahili (G.40) > Mombasa-Lamu-Inland Swahili > Swahili

Indice de vitalité: shifting (AES level: 3) (réf. Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and Simpson, Sean and Ueki, Kaori 2022)

Indice de documentation: Grammar with more than 300 pages (MED level: 0) (réf. Madan, A. C. and Steere, E. 1890)

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

Pays ou régions dans lesquelles l'entrepôt dispose d'enregistrements
Région Code Nombre
Tanzania TZ 1
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: Swahili (individual language)

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Obliques = "Not possible"
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Subjects = "Gap"
  • Complex Sentences:Utterance Complement Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. Vitale 1981 )
  • Lexicon:Finger and Hand = "Different" (réf. Snoxall 1958 )
  • Lexicon:Hand and Arm = "Identical" (réf. Snoxall 1958 )
  • Lexicon:M in First Person Singular = "m in first person singular" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Lexicon:M in Second Person Singular = "No m in second person singular" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Lexicon:M-T Pronouns = "No M-T pronouns" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Lexicon:N-M Pronouns = "No N-M pronouns" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Lexicon:Numeral Bases = "Decimal" (réf. Ashton 1969 )
  • Lexicon:Tea = "Words derived from Sinitic cha" (réf. Malherbe and Rosenberg 1996 )
  • Morphology:Case Syncretism = "No case marking" (réf. Myachina 1981, Ashton 1947 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "No case" (réf. Ashton 1947, Perrott 1950 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Tense-Aspect-Mood Inflection = "monoexponential TAM" (réf. Ashton 1947, Perrott 1950 )
  • Morphology:Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Exclusively concatenative" (réf. Perrott 1950, Ashton 1947 )
  • Morphology:Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb = "4-5 categories per word" (réf. Perrott 1950, Ashton 1947 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases = "Dependent marking"
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in the Clause = "Head marking"
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology = "Inconsistent or other"
  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Weakly prefixing" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Morphology:Reduplication = "Productive full and partial reduplication" (réf. Njogu 2001b )
  • Morphology:Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking = "Syncretic" (réf. Myachina 1981, Ashton 1947 )
  • Morphology:Zero Marking of A and P Arguments = "Non-zero marking"
  • Nominal Categories:Asymmetrical Case-Marking = "No case-marking" (réf. Vitale 1981, Blake 1994, Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural prefix" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Comitatives and Instrumentals = "Differentiation" (réf. Möhlig and Heine 1999 )
  • Nominal Categories:Definite Articles = "Demonstrative word used as definite article" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives = "Two-way contrast" (réf. Ashton 1944 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "Marked by reduplication"
  • Nominal Categories:Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns = "3rd person only, but also non-singular" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns = "No inclusive/exclusive" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection = "No inclusive/exclusive" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Pronouns = "Generic-noun-based" (réf. Haspelmath 1997 )
  • Nominal Categories:Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns = "Differentiated" (réf. Myachina 1981 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Cases = "No morphological case-marking" (réf. Vitale 1981, Blake 1994, Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Genders = "Five or more" (réf. Gregersen 1967, Wald 1975, Corbett 1991 )
  • Nominal Categories:Numeral Classifiers = "Absent" (réf. Welmers 1973 )
  • Nominal Categories:Occurrence of Nominal Plurality = "All nouns, always obligatory" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "First, second, three-th" (réf. Möhlig and Heine 1999 )
  • Nominal Categories:Person Marking on Adpositions = "No person marking" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns = "Person-number stem" (réf. Gromova and Oxotina 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "No politeness distinction" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "Mixed morphological case" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes = "Possessive suffixes" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Nominal Categories:Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives = "Identical" (réf. Ashton 1944 )
  • Nominal Categories:Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems = "Non-sex-based" (réf. Gregersen 1967, Wald 1975, Corbett 1991 )
  • Nominal Categories:Systems of Gender Assignment = "Semantic and formal" (réf. Gregersen 1967, Wald 1975, Corbett 1991 )
  • Nominal Categories:The Associative Plural = "Unique periphrastic associative plural"
  • Nominal Syntax:Action Nominal Constructions = "Possessive-Accusative"
  • Nominal Syntax:Adjectives without Nouns = "Without marking"
  • Nominal Syntax:Noun Phrase Conjunction = "'And' identical to 'with'" (réf. Ashton 1944 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Number of Possessive Nouns = "None reported"
  • Nominal Syntax:Obligatory Possessive Inflection = "Absent"
  • Nominal Syntax:Possessive Classification = "No possessive classification"
  • Other:Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks = "Affective meanings"
  • Phonology:Absence of Common Consonants = "All present" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Consonant Inventories = "Moderately large" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Consonant-Vowel Ratio = "Moderately high" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Fixed Stress Locations = "Penultimate" (réf. Ashton 1947, Wald 1987 )
  • Phonology:Front Rounded Vowels = "None" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Glottalized Consonants = "No glottalized consonants" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Lateral Consonants = "/l/, no obstruent laterals" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Presence of Uncommon Consonants = "'Th' sounds" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Syllable Structure = "Simple" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:The Velar Nasal = "Initial velar nasal" (réf. Johnson and Madan 1939 )
  • Phonology:Tone = "No tones" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Uvular Consonants = "None" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems = "None missing in /p t k b d g/" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives = "In both plosives and fricatives" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Vowel Nasalization = "Contrast absent" (réf. Myachina 1981, Contini-Morava 1997 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Quality Inventories = "Average (5-6)" (réf. Polomé n.d. )
  • Phonology:Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems = "No weight" (réf. Ashton 1947, Wald 1987 )
  • Phonology:Weight-Sensitive Stress = "Fixed stress (no weight-sensitivity)" (réf. Ashton 1947, Wald 1987 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases = "Neutral" (réf. Ashton 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns = "Neutral" (réf. Ashton 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Verbal Person Marking = "Accusative" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Antipassive Constructions = "No antipassive" (réf. Whiteley 1968, Vitale 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Applicative Constructions = "Benefactive and other; both bases" (réf. Abdulaziz 1996 )
  • Simple Clauses:Comparative Constructions = "Exceed" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' = "Double-object construction" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Expression of Pronominal Subjects = "Subject affixes on verb" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "Predicate negation also present" (réf. Haspelmath 1997 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Morphemes = "Negative affix" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nominal and Locational Predication = "Identical" (réf. Ashton 1944 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions = "Morphological but no compound" (réf. Vitale 1981, Myachina 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Order of Person Markers on the Verb = "A precedes P" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Other Roles of Applied Objects = "Locative"
  • Simple Clauses:Passive Constructions = "Present" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Periphrastic Causative Constructions = "Purposive but no sequential" (réf. Vitale 1981, Myachina 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Question particle" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Adjectives = "Mixed" (réf. Ashton 1944 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Possession = "Conjunctional" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Productivity of the Antipassive Construction = "no antipassive" (réf. Whiteley 1968, Vitale 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Reciprocal Constructions = "Distinct from reflexive" (réf. Vitale 1981 )
  • Simple Clauses:Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation = "A/Cat" (réf. Contini-Morava 1989, Hurskainen 1989 )
  • Simple Clauses:Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation = "Both" (réf. Hurskainen 1989, Contini-Morava 1989 )
  • Simple Clauses:Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking = "No zero realization" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Verbal Person Marking = "Both the A and P arguments" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Simple Clauses:Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals = "Impossible" (réf. Ashton 1944 )
  • Verbal Categories:Coding of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:Epistemic Possibility = "Affixes on verbs" (réf. Brandon 1974 )
  • Verbal Categories:Imperative-Hortative Systems = "Maximal system" (réf. Ashton 1947, Wilson 1970 )
  • Verbal Categories:Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking = "Overlap for either possibility or necessity" (réf. Brandon 1974 )
  • Verbal Categories:Perfective/Imperfective Aspect = "No grammatical marking" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect prefixes" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:Situational Possibility = "Affixes on verbs" (réf. Ashton 1944, Brandon 1974 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect = "None" (réf. Ashton 1947, Loogman 1965 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion in Imperatives and Hortatives = "Imperative"
  • Verbal Categories:The Future Tense = "Inflectional future exists" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Morphological Imperative = "Second singular and second plural" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Optative = "Inflectional optative absent" (réf. Ashton 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Past Tense = "Present, no remoteness distinctions" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Perfect = "Other perfect" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Prohibitive = "Special imperative + special negative" (réf. Wilson 1970 )
  • Verbal Categories:Verbal Number and Suppletion = "None" (réf. Ashton 1947, Loogman 1965 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:NegSVO Order = "No NegSVO" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Noun-Adjective" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Prepositions" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause = "Initial subordinator word" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Noun-Demonstrative" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Noun-Genitive" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "[Neg-V]" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Noun-Numeral" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "VO" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Noun-Relative clause" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "SV" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "SVO" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Not initial interrogative phrase" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "MorphNeg" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "Initial" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Postnominal relative clauses = "Noun-Relative clause (NRel) dominant" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "None" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "[Neg-V]" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "VO and NAdj"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "VO and Prepositions"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "VO and NRel"
  • Word Order:SNegVO Order = "Prefix&NoDoubleNeg" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:SVNegO Order = "No SVNegO" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:SVONeg Order = "No SVONeg" (réf. Ashton 1947 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SVO Languages = "S[Neg-V]O" (réf. Ashton 1947 )

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_swa

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • Swahili (spa 145) (36 segments)
    a , e , f , h , i , j , k , kʰ , l , m , m̩ , n , n̩ , o , p , pʰ , r , s , t , tʰ , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , u , v , w , z , ð , ŋ , ɓ , ɗ , ɠ , ɣ , ɲ , ʃ , ʄ , θ
  • swahili (aa 823) (37 segments)
    a , b , d , f , h , i , j , k , l , m , mb , n , nd , nz , n̠d̠ʒ , p , r , s , t , t̠ʃ , u , v , w , x , z , ð , ŋ , ŋɡ , ɔ , ɛ , ɟ , ɡ , ɣ , ɱv , ɲ , ʃ , θ

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

  • 1996. TUKI English-Swahili dictionary Kamusi ya Kiingereza-Kiswahili. 1st edn. Dar es Salaam: Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam. xx+882pp. (Notes: "Lexicographers ... J.S. Mdee ... editors ... D.P.B. Massamba ..."--Foreword. Other Titles: English-Swahili dictionary). (cf. référence complète)
  • Abasheikh, Mohammad Imam. 1976. Reflexivization in Chimwi:ni. Studies in the linguistic sciences 6. 1-22. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abdulaziz, Mohamed H. 1996. Transitivity in Swahili. (East African Languages and Dialects, 5.) Köln: Köppe. 292pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abdulaziz, Mohamed H. Mkilifi. 1971. Triglossie und Suaheli-englischer Bilingualismus in Tansania. In Kjolseth, Rolf and Sack, Fritz (eds.), Zur Soziologie der Sprache, 173-191. Opladen: Opladen (Deutschland): Westdeutscher Verlag. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abdulla, Anu and others. 2002. Swahili-suomi-swahili-sanakirja = Swahili-Finnish-Swahili lexicon. Saarijärvi (Finland). (cf. référence complète)
  • Abdurahman, Mohammed. 1939. Anthropological notes from the Zanzibar Protectorate. Tanganyika notes and records 8. 59-84. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abdy, Dora C. 1917. Witchcraft amongst the Wahadimu. Journal of the African Soc. 16. 234-241. (cf. référence complète)
  • Abel, Martin. 1938. Die arabische Vorlage des Suaheli-Epos Chuo Cha Herkal: textkritische Edition und Übersetzung ; ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der legendären Magazi-Literatur. 18. repr. d. Ausg. v. 1938 edn. Nendeln: Kraus Repr. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Hamburg). (cf. référence complète)
  • Agha-Mohamad-Beigui, Schirin. 2006. Sheng unter Schülern zweier Schulen in Nairobi: eine linguistische Analyse. (MA thesis, Universität Hamburg). (cf. référence complète)
  • Al-Lamuy, Shaibu Faraji bin Hamed al-Bakariy. 1938. Khabar al-Lamu: a chronicle of Lamu [transliterated and translated from Swahili by William Hichens]. Bantu studies 12. 2-33. (cf. référence complète)
  • Allen, James de Vere. 1974. Swahili culture reconsidered: some historical implications of the material culture of the northern Kenya coast in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Azania 9. 105-138. (cf. référence complète)
  • Allen, James de Vere. 1979. Swahilisation: a cultural concept and its significance in Kenya today. (Papers from the Inst. of African Studies (IAS), 125.) Nairobi: Univ. of Nairobi. (cf. référence complète)
  • Allen, James de Vere. 1983. Shungwaya, the Mijikenda and the traditions. International journal of African historical studies 16. 455-484. (cf. référence complète)
  • Amidu, Assibi A. 1997. Classes in Kiswahili: a study of their forms and implications. (East African Languages and Dialects, 8.) Cologne: Köln: Köppe. xviii+440pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Amidu, Assibi A. 2004. Reflexives and reflexivization in Kiswahili grammar. (East African languages and dialects, 14.) Köln: Köppe. xviii+527pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Amidu, Assibi A. 2006. Pronouns and Pronominalizations in Kiswahili grammar. (Grammatical Analyses in African Languages, 27.) Köln: Köppe. xviii+402pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Amidu, Assibi A. 2006. Pronouns and pronominalization in Kiswahili grammar. (Grammatikalische Analysen afrikanischer Sprachen, 27.) Koppe. xviii+402pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Amory, Deborah Peters. 1994. The politics of identity on Zanzibar. (Doctoral dissertation, Stanford Univ.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Ashton, E. O. 1970. Swahili grammar (including intonation). 2nd edn. London: Longman. xii+398pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ashton, Eric Ormerod. 1947. Swahili Grammar. London: Longmans, Green & Co. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ashton, Eric Ormerod. 1969. Swahili Grammar. London: Longmans, Green & Co. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ashton, Ethel O. 1944. Swahili grammar (including intonation). London: Longmans, Green & Co. xii+398pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ashton, Ethel O. 1947. Swahili grammar (including intonation). 2nd edn. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 394pp. (2nd edition). (cf. référence complète)
  • Augustin, MaryAnne. 2007. Topic and focus in Swahili. GIALens: Electronic Notes Series 1. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bakari, Mohamed. 1985. The Morphophonology of the Kenyan Swahili Dialects. (Language and Dialect Atlas of Kenya: Supplement, 5.) Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. 328pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bakari, Mohammed Ali. 2017. Analaysis of youths' slang in the Makunduchi dialects: A case of south district Unguja. (MA thesis, University of Dodoma; xiii+81pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Baquez, Pascal. 2000. Contes swahili de Kilwa / Hadithi za kiswahili kutoka Kilwa. Paris: L'Harmattan. (cf. référence complète)
  • Barton, J.T.J. 1922. Report on the Bajun Islands. Journal of East Africa and Uganda Natural History Museum 17. 24-38. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bastin, Yvonne and Coupez, A. and Mann, Michael. 1999. Continuity and divergence in the Bantu languages: perspectives from a lexicostatistic study. (Annalen van het Koninglijk Museum van Belgisch-Congo: Reeks in 8, 162.) Belgique: MRAC, Tervuren. vi+225pp. (Includes bibliographical references (p. [226]) English, with introductory material in French). (cf. référence complète)
  • Batibo, Herman M. 1989. Les parlers ruraux de Zanzibar: "dialectes" swahili? Premiers résultats d'une enquête lexicostatistique. In Rombi, M.-F. (ed.), Le swahili et ses limites: ambiguïtés des notions reçues (table ronde internationale du CNRS, sèvres, 20-22 avril 1983), 63-68. Paris: Editions Recherches sur les Civilisations. (cf. référence complète)
  • Baudissin, Otto von [Graf]. 1900. Deutsch-Suaheli Taschen-Wörterbuch. Berlin: Wilhelm Süsserott. (cf. référence complète)
  • Baumann, Oskar. 1899. Gottsurteile bei den Suaheli. Globus 76. 371-372. (cf. référence complète)
  • Baumann, Oskar. 1957. Mafia Island [translated from German by G.S.P. Freeman-Greville]. Tanganyika notes and records 46. 1-24. (cf. référence complète)
  • Beaudoin-Lietz, Christa. 1999. Formatives of tense, aspect, mood and negation in the verbal construction of standard Swahili. Ann Arbor: UMI. (Doctoral dissertation, University of St Johns; xix+305pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Beck, Rose Marie. 2015. Sheng: an urban variety of Swahili in Kenya. Youth Language Practices in Africa and Beyond. In Nico Nassenstein and Andrea Hollington (eds.), Youth Language Practices in Africa and Beyond, 51-80. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. (cf. référence complète)
  • Berg, F.J. 1968. The Swahili community of Mombasa, 1500-1900. Journal of African history 9. 35-56. (cf. référence complète)
  • Berg, F.J. 1971. Mombasa and the Busaidi Sultanate: the city and its hinterland in the nineteenth century. (Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison). (cf. référence complète)
  • Bertoncini-Zúbková, Elena. 1995. Slang in literature? Freddy Macha's short story 'Check Bob'. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere (AAP) 42. 180-186. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bertoncini-Zúbková, Elena. 1999. Kenyan literary Swahili. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere (AAP) 60. 45-58. (cf. référence complète)
  • Birkeli, Emil. 1920. The Bantu in Madagascar: the Malagasy race affinity. Journal of the African Soc. 19. 305-315. (cf. référence complète)
  • Blake, Barry J. 1994. Case. (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics, none.) 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge: CUP. 229pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Blij, Harm J. de. 1968. Mombasa: an African city. Evanston: Northwestern Univ. Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Blok, Henri Peter. 1948. A Swahili anthology, with notes and glossaries, 1: Ki-Unguja texts (dialect of Zanzibar). (Publ. of the African Inst. (Leyden), 1.) Leiden: Sijthoff. (cf. référence complète)
  • Blok, Henri Peter. 1955. Nota introduttiva al dialetto bagiuni. In Grottanelli, Vinigi L. (ed.), Pescatori dell'Oceano Indiano: saggio etnologico preliminare sui Baguini, Bantu costieri dell'Oltregiuba, 345-364. Roma: Cremonese. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bonde, C. V. 1933. Note on the Swahili names of certain fishes of Zanzibar. South African journal of science 30. 351-354. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bosire, B. Mokaya. 2008. Sheng: The phonology, morphology and social profile of an urban vernacular. (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Albany; ix+292pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Boyd, A. 1978. The musical instruments of Lamu. Kenya past and present 9. 3-7. (cf. référence complète)
  • Brain, James Lewton. 1966. Basic structures of Swahili. Syracuse NY: Syracuse: Program of Eastern African Studies, Syracuse Univ. iv+151pp. (cf. référence complète)
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Seules sont affichées les 100 premières référence. Pour une liste exhaustive sur Glottolog

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Informations tirées de Lexvo.org, de dbpedia.org, de WALS, de PHOIBLE, et de Glottolog