Urdu

Code ISO 639-3: urd

Classification: Indo-European > Indo-Iranian > Indo-Aryan > Indo-Aryan Central zone > Subcontinental Central Indo-Aryan > Western Hindi > Hindustani > Urdu

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

Pays ou régions dans lesquelles l'entrepôt dispose d'enregistrements
Région Code Nombre
France FR 1
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: Urdu

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Strongly suffixing" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Nominal Categories:Asymmetrical Case-Marking = "Additive-quantitatively asymmetrical" (réf. Schmidt 1999 )
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural suffix" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Nominal Categories:Comitatives and Instrumentals = "Differentiation" (réf. Stolz 1996 )
  • Nominal Categories:Definite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives = "Two-way contrast" (réf. Schmidt 1999 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Cases = "2 cases" (réf. Schmidt 1999 )
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "Multiple politeness distinctions" (réf. Schmidt 1999 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "No case affixes or adpositional clitics" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Nominal Categories:Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives = "Identical" (réf. Schmidt 1999 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Question particle" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect suffixes" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Optative = "Inflectional optative absent" (réf. Dymshic 2001 )
  • Word Order:Correlative relative clauses = "Correlative relative clause dominant" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:NegSOV Order = "No NegSOV" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Adjective-Noun" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Postpositions" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause = "Initial subordinator word" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Order of Degree Word and Adjective = "Degree word-Adjective"
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Demonstrative-Noun" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Genitive-Noun" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "NegV" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Numeral-Noun" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "OV"
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Correlative" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "SV"
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "SOV"
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Not initial interrogative phrase" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "SONegV" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "Initial" (réf. Bender 1967 )
  • Word Order:Position of negative words relative to beginning and end of clause and with respect to adjacency to verb = "Immed preverbal" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "None" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "NegV" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "OV and AdjN"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "OV and Postpositions"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Other"
  • Word Order:SNegOV Order = "No SNegOV" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:SONegV Order = "Word&NoDoubleNeg" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:SOVNeg Order = "NoSOVNeg" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SOV Languages = "SONegV" (réf. Bender 1967, Schmidt 1999 )

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_urd

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • Urdu (RA) (54 segments)
    a , b , b̤ , cç , cçʰ , d̪ , d̪̤ , ẽ̞ , f , h , i , ĩ , ĩː , j , k , kʰ , m , n , oː , õ , p , pʰ , q , r , t̪ , t̪ʰ , u , ũː , w , x , z , æ̞̃ , ç , ŋ , ɑ̃ , ɑ̃ː , ɔ , ɖ , ɖ̤ , ə , ə̃ , ɛ , ɟʝ , ɟ̤ʝ , ɡ , ɡʰ , ɣ , ɪ , ɽ , ʈ , ʈʰ , ʊ , ʊ̃ , ʝ

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

  • 1995. Oxford English Urdu dictionary Oksfard Inglish Urdu dikshinari. Karaci, Pakistan: Oxford Univ. Press. xxiv+2099pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2002. urduu qaaidaa. 17pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • 2005. Saraiki-Urdu-Angrezi bol chal = Conversational Saraiki, Urdu, English. 37pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Agesth, S. and Subrah, P. (eds.) 1976. Relative Participle in Dakhani Urdu with Special Reference to Tamil and Telugu. In Agesth, S. and Subrah, P. (eds.), Dravidian Linguistics - V. (cf. référence complète)
  • Asani, Ali S. and Hyder, Syed Akbar. 2008. Let's study Urdu: an introductory course. New Haven: Yale University Press. 519pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Author unknown. 2007. Kalam Kohistan ki rawaeti tarikh - hissa awal: kalam khas. (FLI Language and Culture Series, 3.) [Peshawar, Pakistan]: Frontier Language Institute. 169pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Aziz, A.K. 1988. An investigation into the factors governing the persistence of Urdu as a minority language in South Africa. (MA thesis, Univ. of South Africa (UNISA)). (cf. référence complète)
  • Baart, Joan L.G. and Sindi, Ghulam Hyder (eds.) 2003. Pakistani languages and society: problems and prospects. Islamabad: National Inst. of Pakistan Studies. vi+153pp. (Papers read at a Seminar in Islamabad on May 28, 2002 Includes bibliographical references Some in Urdu). (cf. référence complète)
  • Backstrom, Peter C. and Radloff, Carla F. 1992. Languages of northern areas. (Sociolinguistic survey of Northern Pakistan, 2.) Islamabad, Pakistan: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University. xxiii+417pp. (Balti – Burushaski – Wakhi – Domaaki – The dialects of Shina – Appendices Includes bibliographical references (p. 409-417)). (cf. référence complète)
  • Bakhsh, Peir and Barnwell, Katharine. 1999. Tarjuma kitaab-e-muqaddas. Karachi: National Bible Translators of Pakistan. 259pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Broeder, Peter and Extra, Guus and Maartens, Jeanne. 2002. Multilingualism in South Africa: with a focus on KwaZulu-Natal and metropolitan Durban. (PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, 7.) Univ. of Cape Town (UCT). (cf. référence complète)
  • Butt, Miriam. 1991. Semantic case in Urdu. Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 27:1. 31-45. (cf. référence complète)
  • Butt, Miriam. 1993. A Reanalysis of Long Distance Agreement in Urdu. Berkeley Linguistic Society 19. 52-63. (cf. référence complète)
  • Butt, Miriam. n.d. The Structure of Complex Predicates in Urdu. In Alsina, Alex and Bresnan, Joan and Sells, Peter (eds.) Stanford.: CSLI Publications. (cf. référence complète)
  • C. M. Naim. 1999. Introductory Urdu. South Asia Language & Area Center, University of Chicago. viii+345pp. (Band I von II). (cf. référence complète)
  • Cardona, G. and Jain, D. (eds.) 2003. Urdu - Brief history & geography of Urdu, Phonology, Grammar, Syntax, Writing System. In Cardona, G. and Jain, D. (eds.), The Indo-Aryan Languages. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dellevoet, S. 1997. Indische talen in KwaZulu-Natal. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dowson, John. 1872. A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language. London: Trübner & Co. 305pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dymshic, Zalman M. 2001. Grammatika jazyka urdu. Moskva: Izdatel'skaja firma "Vostochnaja literatura" RAN. (cf. référence complète)
  • Dymsic, Zalman M. 2001. Grammatika jazyka urdu. Moskva: Vostocnaja literatura RAN. 589pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ernest Bender. 1967. Urdu: Grammar and Reader. Philadelphia: New Delhi: Bahri Publications. 490pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Eunice Tan and Gulrang Lal Mohd. 1. Aasaan urduu kitaab 1. Karachi: Young Education Society. 12pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Eunice Tan and Gulrang Lal Mohd. 1999. Aasaan urduu kitaab 2. Karachi: Young Education Society. 16pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • George A. Grierson. 1916. Indo-Aryan Family: Central Group: Specimens of Western Hindī and Pañjābī. (Linguistic Survey of India, IX(I).) Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Goverment Printing. (cf. référence complète)
  • Haidari, Mohamed Akbar Khan. 1961. "The Munshi": Standard Urdu Grammar (With Exercises and Full Vocabulary). Islamabad: Haidari's Oriental Book Depot. 286pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Hamidullah, M. 1939. Brief notes on 'Nirali Urdu' of Delhi. Indian Linguistics 7. 341-351. (cf. référence complète)
  • Haq, Abdul. 1998. Urdu-English dictionary: over 40,000 words and phrases. New Delhi: Star Publications. 696pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Humayoun, Muhammad. 2006. Urdu morphology, orthography and lexicon extraction. Göteborg: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Göteborg; 106pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Hussain, Sarmad and Nair, Rami. 1995. Voicing and aspiration contrasts in Hindi and Urdu. Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 31:1. 205-216. (cf. référence complète)
  • Hussain, Sarmad. 1997. Phonetic Correlates of Lexical Stress in Urdu. (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University; 167pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Hussain, Sarmad. 2007. Phonetic correlates of lexical stress in Urdu. Ann Arbor: UMI. (Zugl.: Evanston, Northwestern Univ., Diss,. 1997). (cf. référence complète)
  • Khan, Iqtidar H. 1999. A contrastive and comparative study of standard Urdu and standard Hindi. Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim Univ. 208pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Khateeb S. Mustafa. 1985. A descriptive study of Dakhni Urdu as spoken in the Chittoor District, A. P. (Doctoral dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University; 584pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Khateeb S. Mustafa. 2000. A Descriptive Grammar of Dakkhini. New Delhi: Munishiram Manoharlal Publishers. ix+278pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Kljuev, Boris I. and Akimov, A. I. and Glebov, N. V. 1959. Russko-urdu slovar': 23000 slov ; s prilozeniem ocerka grammatiki jazyka Urdu. Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe Izdat. Inostrannych u Nacional'nych Slovarej. 1123pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Koul, Omkar N. and Devaki, L. (eds.) 2000. Linguistic heritage of India and Asia. (Central Institute of Indian Languages Publications, 469.) Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages. xv+343pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Lodhi, Abdulaziz Yusuf. 2000. Oriental influences in Swahili: a study in language and culture contacts. (Orientalia et africana gothoburgensia, 15.) Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. 253pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Mahboob, Ahmar. 2008. Pakistani English: morphology and syntax. In Mesthrie, Rajend and Kortmann, Bernd and Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), Africa, South and Southeast Asia, 578-592. Berlin, New York: Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. (cf. référence complète)
  • Masood, Shahida. 1986. The Urdu dialect the Pathans of Kaimganj (U.P.): A linguistic analysis of its characteristics --- lexical items and idioms. (MA thesis, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University; 125pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Matthews, Stephen. 1996. Ditaxia and hybridization in Chinese dialect grammar. In The Fourth International Symposium on Language and Linguistics, 1274-1283. Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol. (cf. référence complète)
  • Naim, C. M. [1965]. Readings in Urdu: prose and poetry. (Asian language series.) Honolulu: South Asia Language and Area Center, University of Chicago, by East-West Center Press. viii+396pp. ("Written and prepared ... under contract with the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D.C."). (cf. référence complète)
  • Nasir Hasan and O.N. Koul. 1980. Urdu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. (cf. référence complète)
  • Platts, John Thompson. 1998. Encyclopaedic dictionary of Urdu, Hindi, and English. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publ. (cf. référence complète)
  • Prabhakaran, Varijakshi. 1998. Indian languages in KwaZulu-Natal. In Extra, Guus and Maartens, Jeanne (eds.), Multilingualism in a multicultural context: case studies on South Africa and western Europe, 75-90. Tilburg Univ. Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Pradeep, Kumar Das. 2006. Grammatical agreement in Hindi-Urdu and its major varieties. (Lincom Studies in Indo-European Linguistics, 33.) München: Lincom. vii+272pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Radloff, Carla F. 1991. Sentence repetition testing for studies of community bilingualism. (Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 104.) Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. xvi+194pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Ruth Laila Schmidt. 1982. Dakhini Urdu: history and structure. (Series in Indian languages and linguistics, 11.) New Delhi: Bahri Publications. 110pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Sarwet Rasul. 2006. Language Hybridization in Pakistan as a socio-cultural phenomenon: An analysis of code-mixed linguistic patterns. (Doctoral dissertation, Islamabad: National University of Modern Languages; 462pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Schmidt, Ruth L. 2003. Urdu - Brief history & geography of Urdu, Phonology, Grammar, Syntax, Writing System. In Cardona, G. and Jain, D. (eds.), The Indo-Aryan Languages, 286-350. (cf. référence complète)
  • Schmidt, Ruth Laila. 1999. Urdu: an essential grammar. London-New York: Routledge. xviii+300pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Shakeel, M. Abdul Gaffar. 1967. Phonology and morphology of Dakhni Urdu as spoken in Mysore. (Doctoral dissertation, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University; 201pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Sharma, Sri Ram. 1960. Dakkhini kā rūp vinyas. Agra. (cf. référence complète)
  • Shuja, Asif. 1999. Noun phrase structure of English & Urdu. (SELL - Series in English Language and Literature, 49.) New Delhi: Bahri. 100pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Switzer, Les and Switzer, Donna. 1979. The black press in South Africa and Lesotho: a descriptive bibliographical guide to African, Coloured and Indian newspapers, newsletters and magazines 1836-1976. (Bibliographies and guides to African studie, bliographies and guides to African studies.) Boston: G.K. Hall & Co. (cf. référence complète)
  • W. Yates. 1841. Introduction of the Hindustani language. London: Trübner & Co. 456pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Whinnom, Keith. 1971. Linguistic hybridization and the 'special case' of pidgin and creoles. In Dell Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and creolization of languages, 91-115. Cambridge: CUP. (cf. référence complète)
  • Zaidi, Shamshad and Nazir, Hassan. 1997. An introduction to Urdu script: reading and writing. (Central Institute of Indian Languages, 419.) Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages, Ministry of HUman Resources Development, Dept. of Education. vii+177pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • n.d. (cf. référence complète)

Seules sont affichées les 100 premières référence. Pour une liste exhaustive sur Glottolog

Autres liens sur cette langue

Informations tirées de Lexvo.org, de dbpedia.org, de WALS, de PHOIBLE, et de Glottolog