birman

Code ISO 639-3: mya

Classification: Sino-Tibetan > Burmo-Qiangic > Lolo-Burmese > Burmish > Southern Burmish > Mranmaic > Nuclear Mranmaic > Burmese

Indice de vitalité: shifting (AES level: 3) (réf. Campbell, Lyle and Lee, Nala Huiying and Okura, Eve and Simpson, Sean and Ueki, Kaori 2017)

Indice de documentation: Grammar with more than 300 pages (MED level: 0) (réf. Jenny, Mathias and Hnin Tun, San San 2016)

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

Pays ou régions dans lesquelles l'entrepôt dispose d'enregistrements
Région Code Nombre
France FR 36
Myanmar [Burma] MM 54
United States US 1
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: birman

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Complex Sentences:'Want' Complement Subjects = "Subject is left implicit" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Obliques = "Gap" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Subjects = "Gap" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Lexicon:M in First Person Singular = "No m in first person singular" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Lexicon:M in Second Person Singular = "No m in second person singular" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Lexicon:M-T Pronouns = "No M-T pronouns" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Lexicon:N-M Pronouns = "No N-M pronouns" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Lexicon:Numeral Bases = "Decimal" (réf. Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Lexicon:Tea = "Others" (réf. Malherbe and Rosenberg 1996 )
  • Morphology:Case Syncretism = "No case marking" (réf. Esche et al. 1988 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Monoexponential case" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Tense-Aspect-Mood Inflection = "monoexponential TAM" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Morphology:Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Exclusively concatenative" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Morphology:Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb = "2-3 categories per word" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases = "Dependent marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in the Clause = "Dependent marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology = "Dependent-marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Strongly suffixing" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968, Stewart 1955, Soe 1999 )
  • Morphology:Reduplication = "Full reduplication only" (réf. Lehman 2001 )
  • Morphology:Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking = "No subject person/number marking" (réf. Esche et al. 1988 )
  • Morphology:Zero Marking of A and P Arguments = "Non-zero marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Asymmetrical Case-Marking = "Symmetrical" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural word" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers = "Formally similar, with interrogative" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Definite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives = "Two-way contrast" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "Marked by suffix" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns = "3rd person singular only" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns = "'We' the same as 'I'" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection = "No person marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns = "Identical" (réf. Bradley 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Cases = "8-9 cases" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Genders = "None" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Numeral Classifiers = "Obligatory" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "Various" (réf. Richter 1983 )
  • Nominal Categories:Person Marking on Adpositions = "No person marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns = "Number-indifferent pronouns" (réf. Njun et al. 1963 )
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "Pronouns avoided for politeness" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "Case suffixes" (réf. Stewart 1955, Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems = "No gender" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:Systems of Gender Assignment = "No gender" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Categories:The Associative Plural = "Associative same as additive plural" (réf. Mazo 1978 )
  • Nominal Categories:Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives = "Unrelated" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Action Nominal Constructions = "Other"
  • Nominal Syntax:Adjectives without Nouns = "Without marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses = "Genitives and relative clauses collapsed" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Noun Phrase Conjunction = "'And' identical to 'with'" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Number of Possessive Nouns = "None reported" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Obligatory Possessive Inflection = "Absent" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Possessive Classification = "No possessive classification" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Phonology:Absence of Common Consonants = "All present" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Consonant Inventories = "Moderately large" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Consonant-Vowel Ratio = "Average" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Front Rounded Vowels = "None" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Glottalized Consonants = "No glottalized consonants" (réf. Watkins 2001, Okell 1969 )
  • Phonology:Lateral Consonants = "/l/, no obstruent laterals" (réf. Watkins 2001, Okell 1969 )
  • Phonology:Presence of Uncommon Consonants = "'Th' sounds" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Syllable Structure = "Moderately complex" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:The Velar Nasal = "Initial velar nasal" (réf. Cornyn and Roop 1987 )
  • Phonology:Tone = "Complex tone system" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Uvular Consonants = "None" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems = "None missing in /p t k b d g/" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives = "In both plosives and fricatives" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Nasalization = "Contrast absent" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Quality Inventories = "Large (7-14)" (réf. Okell 1969, Watkins 2001 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases = "Nominative - accusative (standard)" (réf. Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns = "Nominative - accusative (standard)" (réf. Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Verbal Person Marking = "Neutral" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Antipassive Constructions = "No antipassive" (réf. Maun Maun Ngun et al. 1963, Okell 1969, Soe 1999 )
  • Simple Clauses:Applicative Constructions = "No applicative construction" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Comparative Constructions = "Locational" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' = "Double-object construction" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Expression of Pronominal Subjects = "Optional pronouns in subject position" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "Predicate negation also present" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Morphemes = "Double negation" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968, Soe 1999 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nominal and Locational Predication = "Different" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions = "Both" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Order of Person Markers on the Verb = "A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Other Roles of Applied Objects = "No applicative construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Passive Constructions = "Absent" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Periphrastic Causative Constructions = "Purposive but no sequential" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Interrogative verb morphology" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Okell 1969, Stewart 1955 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Adjectives = "Verbal encoding" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Possession = "Locational" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Productivity of the Antipassive Construction = "no antipassive" (réf. Soe 1999, Maun Maun Ngun et al. 1963, Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Reciprocal Constructions = "No reciprocals" (réf. Okell 1969, Stewart 1955 )
  • Simple Clauses:Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation = "A/Cat" (réf. Cornyn 1944, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Simple Clauses:Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation = "Asymmetric" (réf. Cornyn 1944, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Simple Clauses:Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking = "No person marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Verbal Person Marking = "No person marking" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Simple Clauses:Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals = "Possible" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:Coding of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. Bernot 1980 )
  • Verbal Categories:Epistemic Possibility = "Other" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:Imperative-Hortative Systems = "Neither type of system" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking = "Overlap for either possibility or necessity" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:Perfective/Imperfective Aspect = "No grammatical marking" (réf. Bybee et al. 1994 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect suffixes" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Verbal Categories:Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. Bernot 1980 )
  • Verbal Categories:Situational Possibility = "Other kinds of markers" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect = "None" (réf. Okell 1994 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion in Imperatives and Hortatives = "None (= no suppletive imperatives reported in the reference material)"
  • Verbal Categories:The Future Tense = "No inflectional future" (réf. Okell 1969, Bybee et al. 1994 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Morphological Imperative = "No second-person imperatives" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Optative = "Inflectional optative absent" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Past Tense = "No past tense" (réf. Bybee et al. 1994 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Perfect = "From 'finish', 'already'" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Prohibitive = "Normal imperative + special negative" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Verbal Categories:Verbal Number and Suppletion = "None" (réf. Okell 1994 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:NegSOV Order = "No NegSOV" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:Obligatory Double Negation = "[Neg-V]Neg" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968, Soe 1999 )
  • Word Order:Obligatory Double Negation in SOV languages = "SO[Neg-V]Neg" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Noun-Adjective" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Postpositions" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Stewart 1955 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause = "Subordinating suffix" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:Order of Degree Word and Adjective = "Degree word-Adjective" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Demonstrative-Noun" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Genitive-Noun" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "ObligDoubleNeg" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968, Soe 1999 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Noun-Numeral" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Stewart 1955, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "OV" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb = "No dominant order" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Relative clause-Noun" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "SV" (réf. Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "SOV" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Stewart 1955, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Not initial interrogative phrase" (réf. Stewart 1955, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "ObligDoubleNeg" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "No question particle" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Stewart 1955, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Position of negative words relative to beginning and end of clause and with respect to adjacency to verb = "Immed postverbal" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "VNeg" (réf. Okell 1969, Cornyn and Roop 1968, Soe 1999 )
  • Word Order:Prenominal relative clauses = "Relative clause-Noun (RelN) dominant" (réf. Wheatley 1982, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "[Neg-V]" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "OV and NAdj"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "OV and Postpositions"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "OV and RelN"
  • Word Order:SNegOV Order = "No SNegOV" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:SONegV Order = "Prefix&OnlyWithAnotherNeg" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )
  • Word Order:SOVNeg Order = "Word&OnlyWithAnotherNeg" (réf. Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968, Okell 1969 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SOV Languages = "ObligDoubleNeg" (réf. Okell 1969, Soe 1999, Cornyn and Roop 1968 )

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_brm

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • BURMESE (upsid 476) (46 segments)
    a , b , d̠ʒ , d̪|d , e , ẽ̞ĩ , h , i , j , k , kʰ , l̪|l , l̪̥|l̥ , m , m̥ , n̪|n , n̪̥|n̥ , o , õ̞ũ , p , pʰ , s̪|s , s̪ʰ|sʰ , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , t̪|t , t̪ʰ|tʰ , u , w , z̪|z , æ̃ , ð , ŋ , ŋ̥ , ɔ , ə , ɛ , ɡ , ɪ̃ , ɲ , ɲ̥ , ʃ , ʊ̃ , ʍ , ʔ , θ
  • Burmese (ea 2338) (54 segments)
    a , aɪ , aɪ̃ , aʊ , aʊ̃ , ã , b , d , d̠ʒ , e , eɪ , eɪ̃ , h , i , j , k , kʰ , l , m , m̥ , n , n̥ , o , oʊ , oʊ̃ , p , pʰ , s , sʰ , t , tʰ , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , u , w , z , ð , ŋ , ŋ̊ , ɔ , ə , ɛ , ɡ , ɪ , ɪ̃ , ɬ , ɲ , ɲ̊ , ʃ , ʊ , ʊ̃ , ʍ , ʔ , θ
  • Burmese (spa 22) (50 segments)
    a , b , d , d̠ʒ , e , eĩ , h , i , j , k , kʰ , l , l̥ , m , m̥ , n , n̥ , o , oũ , p , pʰ , s , sʰ , t , tʰ , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , u , w , z , æ̃ , ð , ŋ , ŋ̥ , ɔ , ə , ɛ , ɡ , ɪ̃ , ɲ , ɲ̥ , ɾ , ʃ , ʊ̃ , ʍ , ʔ , ˥ , ˥̰ , ˩ , θ
  • Burmese (uz 2164) (56 segments)
    a , aɪ , aɪ̃ , aʊ , aʊ̃ , ã , b , d , d̠ʒ , d̪ð̪ , e , eɪ , eɪ̃ , h , i , ĩ , j , k , kʰ , l , m , m̥m , n , n̥n , o , oʊ , oʊ̃ , p , pʰ , s , sʰ , t , tʰ , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , t̪θ̪ , u , ũ , w , z , ŋ , ŋ̥ŋ , ɔ , ə , ɛ , ɡ , ɬl , ɲ , ɲ̥ɲ , ʃ , ʍw , ʔ , ˦ , ˦ˀ , ˦̰ , ˨

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

  • 1996. Myanmar-English dictionary. Kensington: Dunwoody Press. xxiii+635pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Alaves, Mark (ed.) 1995. On Second-Order Aspectuals with Special Reference to Burmese. In Alaves, Mark (ed.), Papers from the Third Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society SEALS III: 1993. (cf. référence complète)
  • Alice Vittrant. 2005. Classifier systems and noun categorization devices in Burmese. Proceedings of the twenty-eighth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 28. 129-148. (cf. référence complète)
  • Alice Vittrant. 2007. Serial verb constructions in Burmese. Paper presented at the TUL-trajectoire --- 9 november. 11pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Alice Vittrant. 2012. How typology allows for a new analysis of the verb phrase in Burmese. LIDIL 46. 101-126. (cf. référence complète)
  • Alice Vittrant. 2019. Burmese. In Alice Vittrant and Justin Watkins (eds.), The Mainland Southeast Asia Linguistic Area, 56-130. Berlin: Mouton. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bernot, D. and Cramerotti, C. and Yin Yin Myint, M. 1997. Dictionnaire français-birman. (Dictionnaires des Langues O'.) Paris: L'Asiatheque. 311pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bernot, Denise. 1978-<1992 >. Dictionnaire birman-français. (Langues et civilisations de lAsie du sud-est et du monde insulindien, 3.) Paris: SELAF. (teilw. auch: Société d'études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France: Fasc. 1=178 ; Fasc. 4=292, Fasc. 12=301; Fasc. 13=308, Fasc. 14=320; Fasc. 15=336 Burmese and French Collaborating authors vary Summaries in English, German, Russian, and Spanish). (cf. référence complète)
  • Bernot, Denise. 1980. Le prédicat en birman parlé [The predicate in spoken Burmese]. (Langues et civilisations de l'Asie du Sud-Est et monde insulindien, 8.) Paris: Société d'Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France. 381pp. (Summary in Burmese, English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish Includes bibliographical references (p. [373]-375)). (cf. référence complète)
  • Bradley, David. 1995. Reflexives in Burmese. In David Bradley (ed.), Studies in Burmese Languages, 139-172. Canberra, Australia: Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. (Bradley (ed.): Papers in Southasian Linguistics 13: Studies in Burmese Languages). (cf. référence complète)
  • Bradley, David. 1997. What did they eat? Grain crops of the Burmic groups. The Mon-Khmer Studies Journal 27. 161-170. (cf. référence complète)
  • Brohm, J. 1963. Buddhism and Animism in a Burmese Village. Journal of Asian Studies 22. 155-167. (cf. référence complète)
  • Buchanan, Francis. 1798. A comparative vocabulary of some of the languages spoken in the Burma empire. Asiatick Researches 5. 219-240. (cf. référence complète)
  • Cooke, Joseph R. 1968. Pronominal reference in Thai, Burmese, and Vietnamese. (University of California Publications in Linguistics, 52.) Berkeley and Los Angeles: Berkeley, Calif.: Univ. of Calif. Press. viii+162pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Cornyn, William S. and D. Haigh Roop. 1987. Beginning Burmese. New Haven: Yale University Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Damian Satterthwaite-Phillips. 2011. Phylogenetic inference of the Tibeto-Burman languages or On the usefulness of lexicostatistics (and "Megalo"-comparison) for the subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman. (Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University; 285pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Davidson, Frederick Augustus Lascelles. 1889. Anglicized Colloquial Burmese; or, How to speak the language in three months. London: Londo: W. H. Allen. viii+2+103pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Esche, Annemarie and Eberhardt Richter and U Khin Maung Saw. 1988. Burmesisches Übungsbuch. Leipzig: Enzyklopedie. (cf. référence complète)
  • Esche, Annemarie and Richter, Eberhardt and Khin Maung Saw, U. 1988. Burmesisches Übungsbuch. Leipzig: Verl. Enzyklopädie. 443pp. (German and Burmese). (cf. référence complète)
  • Esche, Annemarie. 1976. Wörterbuch Burmesisch-Deutsch [Burmese–German dictionary]. Leipzig: Verl. Enzyklopädie. 550pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Gorgoniev, Jurij A. 1971. Ocerki po sintaksisu prostogo predlozenija v birmanskom jazyke. Moskva: Izd. Nauka. 169pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Green, Antony. 1995. The prosodic structure of Burmese: a constraint-based approach. (unpublished). (cf. référence complète)
  • Hnin Tun, San San. 2013. La grammaire du discours en birman parlée. (Doctoral dissertation, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris 3); 400pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Hodgson, Brian Houghton. 1853. On the Indo-Chinese borderers and their connexion with the Himalayans and Tibetans. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 22. 1-25. (cf. référence complète)
  • Hopple, Paulette. 2002. Topicalization in Burmese expository discourse. Burma-Myanma(r) Research and its Future: Implications for Scholars and Policymakers, Sat 21-Wed 25 Sept 2002, Gothenburg, Sweden. 32pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Hopple, Paulette. 2003. The structure of nominalization in Burmese. Ann Arbor: UMI. (Includes bibliographical references p. 427-444, University of Texas at Arlington; xxiv+445pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Hopple, Paulette. 2011. The structure of nominalization in Burmese. (SIL e-Books, 22.) Dallas, Texas: SIL International. xxiv+445pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Hough, George Henry. 1845. An Anglo-Burmese dictionary. Maulmain: Maulmain, Burma: The American Mission Press. 147pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Huang, Bufan. 1992. Zàngmiǎn yǔzú yǔyán cíhuì [A Tibeto-Burman Lexicon]. Beijing: Zhōngyāng Mínzú Dàxué Chubanshe. 739pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • James Frederick Gruber. 2011. An articulatory, acoustic, and auditory study of Burmese tone. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University; 453pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Jenny, Mathias and Hnin Tun, San San. 2016. Burmese: a comprehensive grammar. London: Routledge. xxii+503pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Johanson, L. et al. (ed.) 2002. Evidentiality and typology: grammatical functions of particles in Burmese and the early stages of Indo-European languages. In Johanson, L. et al. (ed.), Evidentials (Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages). (cf. référence complète)
  • John Okell. 1969. A Reference Grammar of Colloquial Burmese. (London oriental series.) London: Oxford: Oxford University Press. 498pp. (cf. référence complète)
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