hindi

Code ISO 639-3: hin

Classification: Indo-European > Classical Indo-European > Indo-Iranian > Indo-Aryan > Middle-Modern Indo-Aryan > Continental Indo-Aryan > Midlands Indo-Aryan > Shaurasenic > Indo-Aryan Central zone > Western Hindi > Hindustani > Hindi

Indice de vitalité: not endangered (AES level: 1) (réf. David M. Eberhard and Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig 2022)

Indice de documentation: Grammar with more than 300 pages (MED level: 0) (réf. Tiwari, Uday Nārāyaṇ 1961)

Ressources dans l'entrepôt

Pays ou régions dans lesquelles l'entrepôt dispose d'enregistrements
Région Code Nombre
France FR 4
Rechercher toutes les ressources de l'entrepôt sur cette langue: hindi

Propriétés (phonologiques, grammaticales, lexicales) de cette langue trouvées dans WALS

  • Complex Sentences:'Want' Complement Subjects = "Subject is left implicit"
  • Complex Sentences:'When' Clauses = "Balanced/deranked" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Complex Sentences:Reason Clauses = "Balanced/deranked" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Obliques = "Non-reduction" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Complex Sentences:Relativization on Subjects = "Non-reduction" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Complex Sentences:Utterance Complement Clauses = "Balanced" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Lexicon:M in First Person Singular = "m in first person singular" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Lexicon:M in Second Person Singular = "No m in second person singular" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Lexicon:M-T Pronouns = "M-T pronouns, paradigmatic" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Lexicon:N-M Pronouns = "No N-M pronouns" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Lexicon:Numeral Bases = "Decimal" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Lexicon:Tea = "Words derived from Sinitic cha" (réf. Malherbe and Rosenberg 1996 )
  • Morphology:Case Syncretism = "Core and non-core" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Monoexponential case" (réf. Snell and Weightman 1989, Butt 1994, Sandahl 2000, McGregor 1977 )
  • Morphology:Exponence of Tense-Aspect-Mood Inflection = "TAM+agreement" (réf. Butt 1994, Sandahl 2000, Snell and Weightman 1989, McGregor 1977 )
  • Morphology:Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives = "Exclusively concatenative" (réf. Snell and Weightman 1989, Butt 1994, McGregor 1977, Sandahl 2000 )
  • Morphology:Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb = "2-3 categories per word" (réf. Snell and Weightman 1989 )
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases = "Dependent marking"
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking in the Clause = "Double marking"
  • Morphology:Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology = "Inconsistent or other"
  • Morphology:Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology = "Strongly suffixing" (réf. McGregor 1995, McGregor 1977 )
  • Morphology:Reduplication = "Productive full and partial reduplication" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Morphology:Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking = "Syncretic" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Morphology:Zero Marking of A and P Arguments = "Non-zero marking"
  • Nominal Categories:Coding of Nominal Plurality = "Plural suffix" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Comitatives and Instrumentals = "Differentiation" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers = "Formally similar, with interrogative" (réf. Emeneau 1980, Gil 1994b )
  • Nominal Categories:Definite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Distributive Numerals = "Marked by reduplication" (réf. Abbi 1992 )
  • Nominal Categories:Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns = "No gender distinctions" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns = "No inclusive/exclusive" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection = "No person marking" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Articles = "No definite or indefinite article" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Indefinite Pronouns = "Special"
  • Nominal Categories:Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns = "Identical" (réf. Davison 2000 )
  • Nominal Categories:Number of Genders = "Two" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:Numeral Classifiers = "Absent"
  • Nominal Categories:Occurrence of Nominal Plurality = "All nouns, always obligatory"
  • Nominal Categories:Ordinal Numerals = "First, two-th, three-th" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Person Marking on Adpositions = "No person marking" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns = "Person-number stem" (réf. Kachru 1980 )
  • Nominal Categories:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns = "Multiple politeness distinctions" (réf. Sharma and Vermeer 1963 )
  • Nominal Categories:Position of Case Affixes = "Case suffixes" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Categories:Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems = "Sex-based" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:Systems of Gender Assignment = "Semantic and formal" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Nominal Categories:The Associative Plural = "No associative plural"
  • Nominal Categories:Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives = "Related for all demonstratives" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Action Nominal Constructions = "Possessive-Accusative"
  • Nominal Syntax:Adjectives without Nouns = "Marked by following word"
  • Nominal Syntax:Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses = "Highly differentiated"
  • Nominal Syntax:Nominal and Verbal Conjunction = "Identity"
  • Nominal Syntax:Noun Phrase Conjunction = "'And' different from 'with'" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Nominal Syntax:Number of Possessive Nouns = "None reported"
  • Nominal Syntax:Obligatory Possessive Inflection = "Absent"
  • Nominal Syntax:Possessive Classification = "No possessive classification"
  • Other:Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks = "Logical meanings"
  • Phonology:Absence of Common Consonants = "All present" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Consonant Inventories = "Large" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Consonant-Vowel Ratio = "Moderately high" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Fixed Stress Locations = "No fixed stress" (réf. Fairbanks 1981, McGregor 1977 )
  • Phonology:Front Rounded Vowels = "None" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Glottalized Consonants = "No glottalized consonants" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Lateral Consonants = "/l/, no obstruent laterals" (réf. Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1983, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Presence of Uncommon Consonants = "None" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Syllable Structure = "Complex" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:The Velar Nasal = "No velar nasal" (réf. Ohala 1983 )
  • Phonology:Tone = "No tones" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Uvular Consonants = "None" (réf. Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1983, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems = "None missing in /p t k b d g/" (réf. Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1983, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives = "In both plosives and fricatives" (réf. Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1983, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Nasalization = "Contrast present" (réf. Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Vowel Quality Inventories = "Average (5-6)" (réf. Ohala 1983, Kelkar 1968, Ohala 1999 )
  • Phonology:Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems = "Long vowel or coda consonant" (réf. Fairbanks 1981, McGregor 1977 )
  • Phonology:Weight-Sensitive Stress = "Right-oriented: One of the last three" (réf. Fairbanks 1981, McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases = "Tripartite"
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns = "Tripartite"
  • Simple Clauses:Alignment of Verbal Person Marking = "Accusative" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Antipassive Constructions = "No antipassive"
  • Simple Clauses:Applicative Constructions = "No applicative construction" (réf. McGregor 1995 )
  • Simple Clauses:Comparative Constructions = "Locational" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' = "Indirect-object construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation = "Predicate negation also present" (réf. Haspelmath 1997 )
  • Simple Clauses:Negative Morphemes = "Negative particle" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nominal and Locational Predication = "Identical" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions = "Morphological but no compound" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Order of Person Markers on the Verb = "A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Other Roles of Applied Objects = "No applicative construction"
  • Simple Clauses:Passive Constructions = "Present" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Periphrastic Causative Constructions = "Purposive but no sequential" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Polar Questions = "Question particle" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Adjectives = "Nonverbal encoding" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Predicative Possession = "Locational" (réf. McGregor 1972 )
  • Simple Clauses:Productivity of the Antipassive Construction = "no antipassive"
  • Simple Clauses:Reciprocal Constructions = "Distinct from reflexive" (réf. Davison 2000 )
  • Simple Clauses:Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation = "A/Cat" (réf. McGregor 1977, Tikkanen 1991 )
  • Simple Clauses:Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation = "Both" (réf. McGregor 1977, Tikkanen 1991 )
  • Simple Clauses:Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking = "No zero realization" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Verbal Person Marking = "Only the A argument" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Simple Clauses:Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals = "Impossible" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Verbal Categories:Coding of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Verbal Categories:Epistemic Possibility = "Verbal constructions"
  • Verbal Categories:Imperative-Hortative Systems = "Neither type of system" (réf. McGregor 1992a, Kachru 1980 )
  • Verbal Categories:Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking = "Overlap for either possibility or necessity" (réf. Kachru 1980 )
  • Verbal Categories:Perfective/Imperfective Aspect = "Grammatical marking" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes = "Tense-aspect suffixes" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Verbal Categories:Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality = "No grammatical evidentials" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Verbal Categories:Situational Possibility = "Verbal constructions" (réf. Kachru 1980 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect = "Tense and aspect" (réf. Harley 1944 )
  • Verbal Categories:Suppletion in Imperatives and Hortatives = "None (= no suppletive imperatives reported in the reference material)"
  • Verbal Categories:The Future Tense = "Inflectional future exists" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Morphological Imperative = "Second singular and second plural" (réf. McGregor 1992a, Kachru 1980 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Optative = "Inflectional optative absent" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Past Tense = "Present, no remoteness distinctions" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Perfect = "Other perfect" (réf. Dahl 1985 )
  • Verbal Categories:The Prohibitive = "Normal imperative + special negative" (réf. McGregor 1992a, Kachru 1980 )
  • Verbal Categories:Verbal Number and Suppletion = "None" (réf. Harley 1944 )
  • Word Order:Correlative relative clauses = "Correlative relative clause dominant" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Minor morphological means of signaling negation = "None" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:NegSOV Order = "No NegSOV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adjective and Noun = "Adjective-Noun" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "Postpositions" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause = "Initial subordinator word" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Degree Word and Adjective = "Degree word-Adjective" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Demonstrative and Noun = "Demonstrative-Noun" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Genitive and Noun = "Genitive-Noun" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb = "NegV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Numeral and Noun = "Numeral-Noun" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Object and Verb = "OV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Correlative" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject and Verb = "SV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Order of Subject, Object and Verb = "SOV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions = "Not initial interrogative phrase" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Position of Negative Word With Respect to Subject, Object, and Verb = "SONegV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Position of Polar Question Particles = "Initial" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Position of negative words relative to beginning and end of clause and with respect to adjacency to verb = "Immed preverbal" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Postverbal Negative Morphemes = "None" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Preverbal Negative Morphemes = "NegV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun = "OV and AdjN"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase = "OV and Postpositions"
  • Word Order:Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun = "Other"
  • Word Order:SNegOV Order = "No SNegOV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:SONegV Order = "Word&NoDoubleNeg" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:SOVNeg Order = "NoSOVNeg" (réf. McGregor 1977 )
  • Word Order:The Position of Negative Morphemes in SOV Languages = "SONegV" (réf. McGregor 1977 )

Pour plus de précisions voir sur WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures), Cf. http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_hin

Inventaires de phonèmes de cette langue trouvés dans PHOIBLE

  • HINDI-URDU (upsid 354) (61 segments)
    aː , ãː , b , b̤ , d̠ʒ , d̠ʒ̤ , d̪ , d̪̤ , eː , ẽː , f , iː , ĩː , j , k , kʰ , l̪|l , l̪̤|l̤ , m , m̤ , n̪ , n̪̤ , oː , õː , p , pʰ , q , r̪|r , s̪|s , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , t̪ , t̪ʰ , uː , ũː , z̪|z , æː , ɔ , ɔ̃ , ɖ , ɖ̤ , ɛ , ɛ̃ , ɜ , ɜ̃ , ɡ , ɡ̤ , ɦ , ɪ , ɪ̃ , ɽ̃ , ʁ , ʃ , ʈ , ʈʰ , ʊ , ʊ̃ , ʒ , ʔ , β̞ , χ
  • Hindi (ea 2542) (55 segments)
    ã̈ː , äː , b , b̤ʱ , d̠ʒ , d̤ʒ̤ʱ , d̻ , d̻̤ʱ , eː , ẽː , f , iː , ĩː , j , k , kʰ , l̻ , m , n̻ , oː , õː , p , pʰ , r , s , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , t̻ , t̻ʰ , uː , ũː , z , æ , ɔː , ɔ̃ː , ɖ , ɖ̤ʱ , ə , ə̃ , ɛː , ɛ̃ː , ɡ , ɡ̤ʱ , ɦ , ɪ , ɪ̃ , ɽ , ɽ̤ʱ , ʂ , ʃ , ʈ , ʈʰ , ʊ , ʊ̃ , ʋ
  • Hindi (ra 1728) (58 segments)
    a , b , b̤ , cç , cçʰ , d̪ , d̪̤ , e , ẽ̞ , f , h , i , ĩ , j , k , kʰ , l , m , n̪ , o , õ , õ̞ , p , pʰ , s , t̪ , t̪ʰ , u , ũː , w , z , æ , æ̞̃ , ç , ŋ , ɑ̃ , ɔ , ɖ , ɖ̤ , ə , ə̃ , ɛ , ɟʝ , ɟ̤ʝ , ɡ , ɡʱ , ɪ , ɪ̃ , ɲ , ɳ , ɽ , ɽ̤ , ɾ , ʈ , ʈʰ , ʊ , ʊ̃ , ʝ
  • Hindi (uz 2190) (74 segments)
    b , bː , b̤ , d̠ʒ , d̠ʒː , d̤ʒ̤ , d̤ʒ̤ː , d̪ , d̪ː , d̪̤ , d̪̤ː , e , f , fː , h , i , j , k , kʰ , kʰː , kː , l , lː , m , mː , n , nː , o , p , pʰ , pʰː , pː , rː , s , sː , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , t̠ʃʰː , t̠ʃː , t̪ , t̪ʰ , t̪ʰː , t̪ː , u , z , zː , æ , ŋ , ŋː , ɑ , ɔ , ɖ , ɖː , ɖ̤ , ɖ̤ː , ə , ɛ , ɡ , ɡː , ɡ̤ , ɡ̤ː , ɪ , ɽ , ɽ̤ , ɾ , ʃ , ʃː , ʈ , ʈʰ , ʈʰː , ʈː , ʊ , ʋ , ʋː
  • Hindi-Urdu (spa 176) (94 segments)
    aː , ãː , b , bː , b̤ , b̤ː , d̠ʒ , d̠ʒː , d̠ʒ̤ , d̠ʒ̤ː , d̪ , d̪ː , d̪̤ , d̪̤ː , eː , ẽː , f , fː , iː , ĩː , j , jː , k , kʰ , kʰː , kː , l , lː , l̤ , m , mː , m̤ , n̪ , n̪ː , n̪̤ , oː , õː , p , pʰ , pʰː , pː , q , qː , r , rː , s , sː , t̠ʃ , t̠ʃʰ , t̠ʃʰː , t̠ʃː , t̪ , t̪ʰ , t̪ʰː , t̪ː , uː , ũː , z , zː , æe̯ , æẽ̯ , ɑ , ɔo̯ , ɔõ̯ , ɔ̤ , ɖ , ɖː , ɖ̤ , ɖ̤ː , ɜ , ɜ̃ , ɡ , ɡː , ɡ̤ , ɡ̤ː , ɦ , ɪ , ɪ̃ , ɪ̈ , ɽ̃ , ʁ , ʂ , ʃː , ʈ , ʈʰ , ʈʰː , ʈː , ʊ , ʊ̃ , ʋ , ʋː , ʒ , ʔ , χ

Références bibliographiques sur cette langue trouvées dans Glottolog

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  • Anna Pytlowany. 2018 [1698]. Ketelaar Rediscovered: The first Dutch grammar of Persian and Hindustani (1698). (Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam; 254pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Annie Montaut and Sarasvati Joshi. 1999. Parlons Hindi. Paris: L'Harmattan. 147pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Annie Montaut. 2012. Le Hindi. Louvain: Peeters. 221pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bahadur Singh. 1962. Dilli nagar men ajkal prayukt khari boli ke vibhinn rup. (Doctoral dissertation, Dilli Vishvavidyalaya [Delhi University]). (cf. référence complète)
  • Bahadur Singh. 1966. The dialect of Delhi. New Delhi: South Asia Institute. 68pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Balbir, Nicole and Balbir, Jagbans Kishore. 1992. Dictionnaire général hindi-français. Paris: L'Asiatheque. xxxiv+1051pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Barz, Richard K. 1980. The cultural significance of Hindi in Mauritius. South Asia: journal of South Asian studies 3. 1-13. (cf. référence complète)
  • Benjamin Schultze. 1745. Grammatica hindostanica. Halae Saxonum: Institus Judais. iv+83pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Beskrovnyj, V. M. 1953. Hindi-rusi-sabdakosa: okolo 35000 slov i vyrazenij ; s prilozeniem grammaticeskogo ocerka. Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe Izdat. Inostrannych u Nacional'nych Slovarej. 1224pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bhuckory, Somdath. 1967. Hindi in Mauritius. Port Louis: The Royal Printing. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bhuckory, Somdath. 1988. Hindi in Mauritius. 2ème édition edn. Rose-Hill (Mauritius): Ed. de l'Océan Indien. (cf. référence complète)
  • Bickel, Balthasar and Yadava, Yogendra P. 2000. A fresh look at grammatical relations in Indo-Aryan. Lingua 110. 343-373. (cf. référence complète)
  • Broeder, Peter and Extra, Guus and Maartens, Jeanne. 2002. Multilingualism in South Africa: with a focus on KwaZulu-Natal and metropolitan Durban. (PRAESA (Project for Alternative Education in South Africa) occasional papers, 7.) Univ. of Cape Town (UCT). (cf. référence complète)
  • Bruce Pray. 1970. Topics in Hindi-Urdu Grammar. Berkeley: Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies. (cf. référence complète)
  • Buddhadeva Chatterji. 1980. A contrastive study of Khariboli and Bazar (Pidgin) Hindi of Bombay and That of Calcutta with reference to social background. (Doctoral dissertation, Poona: Deccan College; xii+420pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Butt, M. 1994. Complex predicate scrambling in Urdu. Stanford: CSLI. (cf. référence complète)
  • Butt, Miriam. 2001. A Reexamination of the Accusative to Ergative Shift. In Butt, Miriam and King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Time over Matter: Diachronic Perspectives on Morphosyntax. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. (cf. référence complète)
  • Camacho, José and Lina Choueiri and Maki Watanabe (eds.) 1996. The Syntax and Semantics of Indefinite+Bhii Phrases in Hindi. In Camacho, José and Lina Choueiri and Maki Watanabe (eds.), The Proceedings of the 14th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 14). (cf. référence complète)
  • Campbell, George. 1874. Specimens of the languages of India, including those of the aboriginal tribes of Bengal, the central provinces and the eastern frontier. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Press. 314pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Carter, Marina. 1995. Servants, sirdars, settlers: Indians in Mauritius 1834-1874. Delhi (India): Oxford Univ. Press. (cf. référence complète)
  • Cernysev, Vladimir A. 1965. Sintaksis prostogo predlozenija v chindi. Moskva: Nauka. 231pp. (cf. référence complète)
  • Chandra, Kailash. 1967. Morpho-phonemic analysis of grammatical forms in the North-Western Kauravi (Hindi) as represented by the spoken tongue of Shahabad Markanda, district Karnal--Kuruksetra region, Panjab. (Doctoral dissertation, Chandigarh: Panjab University; vii+161pp.) (cf. référence complète)
  • Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1931. Calcutta Hindustani: A study of a Jargon Dialect. Indian Linguistics 1. 177-233. (cf. référence complète)
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